Results (22 Oct 2010):





























16146G, 16342C

73G, 263G, 282C, 309.1C, 315.1C 







Chronological development of mtDNA haplogroups

Note that the age of mitochondrial haplogroups is much more difficult to estimate than Y-DNA haplogroups, due to the tiny sequence of mtDNA and the few number of mutations available. The error margin for the dates below is typically of +-5,000 years, but could even exceed that for older haplogroups.

European mtDNA haplogroups and their subclades

Haplogroup H & V (mtDNA)

Haplogroup H is by far the most common all over Europe, amounting to about 40% of the European population. It is also found (though in lower frequencies) in North Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, Northern Asia, as well as along the East coast of Africa as far as Madagascar.

H1, H3 and V are the most common subclades of HV in Western Europe. H1 peaks in Norway (30% of the population) and Iberia (18 to 25%), and is also high among the Sardinians, Finns and Estonians (16%), as well as Western and Central European in general (10 to 12%) and North-West Africans (10 to 20%). H3 is commonest in Portugal (12%), Sardinia (11%), Galicia (10%), the Basque country (10%), Ireland (6%), Norway (6%), Hungary (6%) and southwestern France (5%). Haplogroup V reaches its highest frequency in northern Scandinavia (40% of the Sami), northern Spain, the Netherlands (8%), Sardinia, the Croatian islands and the Maghreb. It is likely that H1, H3 and V, along with haplogroup U5, were the main haplogroups of Western European hunter-gatherers living in the Franco-Cantabrian refuge during the last Ice Age, and repopulated much of Central and Northern Europe from 15,000 years ago.

Haplogroup H13 is most common in Sardinia and around the Caucasus. Its distribution is reminiscent of Y-DNA haplogroup G2a. The same is true of H2 to a lower extent. This would suggest a Caucasian or Anatolian origin.

H5 and H7 are also common in the Caucasus, but their lower incidence around the Mediterranean, and higher frequency from Anatolia to the Alps via the Danube suggest a possible link with the spread of R1b.

Haplogroup U & K (mtDNA)

Haplogroup U is extremely old. It originated some 60,000 years ago at the confine of North-East Africa and the Middle East, soon after the first Homo Sapiens ventured out of Africa. This is why each of its top-level subclade (U1, U2, U3...) can be seen as a haplogroup in its own right. The main European subclades are U3, U4, U5 and U8/K. U1 is mostly found in the Middle East, U2 in South Asia, U6 in North Africa, U7 from the Near East to India, and the rare U9 from Ethiopia and the Arabian peninsula to Pakistan.

Haplogroup U3 is centered around the Black Sea, with a particularly strong concentration in the north-eastern part. It could be related to the ancient Indo-Europeans, and probably more to R1b than R1a.

Haplogroup U4 are more common in Eastern Europe, Central Asia, northern South Asia (around Tajikistan for U4, and Pakistan for W), which also suggests an affiliation with the Indo-Europeans (correlated to Y-DNA haplogroup R1a). The same is true of haplogroups I, W, T2 and U2e to a lower extent.

Haplogroup U5 is the most common in Western and Northern Europe. DNA tests on ancient skeletons have shown that U5 was the principal mitochondrial haplogroup of Paleolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in Northern Europe. Ancient DNA tests conducted in Britain, Germany and Scandinavia indicate that the frequency of U5 has progressively declined over time through the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age and Middle Ages. Nowadays it remains most common in the far north of Europe, where the Mesolithic population has been least affected by subsequent migrations. For instance, 30 to 50% of the Sami people of northern Scandinavia belong to haplogroup U5b (and about 40% to haplogroup V, which is also pre-Neolithic European origin).

Haplogroup K is in fact the main subclade of U8. It is found throughout Europe and Western Asia, as far away as India. Its highest concentration is in North-West and Central Europe, Anatolia and the southern Arabian peninsula. It is believed to have first arisen somewhere between the Near East (Anatolia ?) and northeastern Italy approximately 16,000 years ago (estimates range from 22,000 years to as little as 10,000 years before present). It has the largest number of subclades of any haplogroup in spite of its fairly recent age. Most K1a4, K1a10, K1b, K1c and K2 subclades are typically European. K1a1b1a and K1a9 are found primarily among Ashkenazi Jews. Compared with Y-DNA haplogroups, mtDNA K seems to correlate best with the spread of R1b, J1 and J2. This reinforces the hypothesis of an Anatolian origin.