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Testing (for 37 markers each) has been completed for two descendants of Nicholas Shamberger. These two participants are fairly closely related, being 3rd-cousins once removed to one another. Both are descended from George Shambarger (#23 in the Shamberger database), born in 1825, a grandson of Nicholas Shamberger. Their 37-marker haplotypes are identical. Deep clade testing was performed on one of them, showing that Nicholas Shamberger belongs to haplogroup R1b1b2a1a. The shorthand for this haplogroup is R-U106, meaning that this subclade is defined by the presence of the SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) marker U106 within the R haplogroup. (SNP testing was negative for the known subgroups of R1b1b2a1a). See this graphical portrayal of the location of this haplogroup within the larger R haplogroup:

What does this tell us about the origins of Nicholas Shamberger's paternal ancestors? In human genetics, he belongs within haplogroup R1b, which is the most commonly occuring haplogroup in western Europe. See (The nomenclature is still evolving, so this website calls the R-U106 subclade R1b1b2a1a1.)

"It appears to represent over 25% of R1b in Europe. In Europe, the subclade (including its own subclades) has a distribution running north west to east and is found in higher concentrations in England (21.4%) and Scandinavia (Denmark 17.7%), reaches a maximum in the Netherlands (37.2%) and slopes down to the east through Germany (20.5%) and the Alps (Switzerland 13.3%, Austria 22.7%) towards the Czech Republic (13.9%) and Ukraine (9.4%). Towards North-Eastern Europe the concentration goes down to 8.2% in Poland and 7.2% in Russia. The subclade appears to be omnipresent in Europe, although it becomes less pronounced in Ireland (5.9%) and France (7.1%) and, further towards the Mediterranean, low values are measured in, Italy (3.5%), and Turkey (0.4%).[20] The frequency of this subclade remains unknown in certain parts of Europe such as Iberia and the Balkans.

The age of U106* is around 4,200 years ago by one estimate. Given the coincidence of date and distribution, U106 origins and spread may possibly be related to the spread of Bell Beaker culture and its successors in the north of Europe. Craig Venter and James Watson, who in 2007 became the first two individuals to have their complete genomes published, both belong to this subclade."

According to, "R1b-S21 (a.k.a. U106) is found at high concentrations in the Netherlands and northern Germany. Its presence in other parts of Europe can be attributed to the 5th- and 6th-century Germanic migrations. The Frisians and Saxons spread this haplogroup to the British Isles, the Franks to Belgium and France, and the Lombards to Austria and northern Italy. The high concentration of S21/U106 around Austria hints that it could have originated there in the Hallstatt period, or originated around the Black Sea and moved there during the Hallstatt period."

To confirm that the branches attributed to Nicholas Shamberger and his wife Barbara Schmid are indeed of the same family, we need participants who are direct male descendants of his sons Jacob Shamberger (#1), John Shamberger (#3), Nicholas Shamberger (#4), and Simon Shumberger (#6). Even though we have two participants from the branch of Frederick Shambarger (#2, father of George Shambarger, #23), it would be helpful to have some participants from Frederick's other sons. Having broad representation from among the living direct male descendants (Shamberger, Shambarger, and Shumberger) will help to determine if any specific haplotype markers can be useful in differentiating the branches and to corroborate the historical evidence that leads us to believe the these families with the surname Sh*mb*rger living in the Lancaster/Cumberland/Dauphin County area of Pennsylvania in the early 1800s are one and the same.

More importantly, determining Nicholas Shamberger's birthplace and family origins in Germany can now be done if we can find a family from Germany of the same haplogroup and close match to the haplotype now known for Nicholas.


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