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Each generation mitochondrial DNA is passed from mother to children.  Men do not pass mtDNA on.  The ancestral mother can be located by tracing the line back through the generations.  The following is a quote from, “The Seven Daughters of Eve”.  The author is Bryan Sykes, a genetist at Oxford.

“Until I started this work I always thought of my ancestors, if I thought of them at all, as some sort of vague and amorphous collection of dead people with no solid connection to me or the modern world, and certainly no real relevance to either.  But once I had realized, through the genetics, that one of my ancestors was actually there, taking part, it was no longer merely interesting---it is overwhelming.  DNA is the messenger which illuminates that connection, handed down from generation to generation, carried, literally, in the bodies of my ancestors.  Each message traces a journey through time and space, a journey made by the long lines that spring from the ancestral mothers.  We will never know all the details of these journeys over thousands of years and thousands of miles, but we can at least imagine them.

I am on a stage.  Before me, in the dim light, all the people who have ever lived are lined up, rank upon rank, stretching far into the distance.  They make no sound that I can hear, but they are talking to each other.  I have in my hand the end of the thread which connects me to my ancestral mother way at the back.  I pull on the thread and one woman’s face in every generation, feeling the tug, looks up at me.  Their faces stand out from the crowd and they are illuminated by a strange light.  These are my ancestors.  I recognize my grandmother in the front row, but in the generations behind her the faces are unfamiliar to me.  I look down the line.  The women do not all look the same.  Some are tall, some are short, some are beautiful, some are plain, some look wealthy, others poor.  I want to ask them each in turn about their lives, their hopes and their disappointments, their joys and their sacrifices.  I speak, but they cannot hear. Yet I feel the strong connection.  These are all my mothers who passed this precious messenger from one to another through a thousand births, a thousand screams, a thousand embraces of a thousand new-born babies.  The thread becomes an umbilical cord.”

Curtis Clark Cardinal---------A2-C64T


Noel Edward Fields   T2b---------------Tara lived near Tuscany, Italy 17000 ago.

HVR1  16126C   16294T  16296T  16304C  16519C

HVR2   73G         263G     309.1C   315.1C



Dennis Lyn Fields                  J--------Jasmine lived in Syria 10000 yrs ago.  Europe was covered with ice.  The middle East was a lush grassland covered with wild grasses--Millet, Wheat, Rice, etc.  They began collecting the seed and soon began planting.  Her descendants were the first farmers.  They changed the world.

HVR1   16069T  16126C  16145A  16231C  16261T



Patricia Ann Adams              J---------Jasmine

HVR1   16069T  16126C  16222T


Fay A Solomon-------------------- J1c3b-------Jasmine

HVR1  16069T  T16126C  T16187C  C16189T  T16223C  G16230A T16278C  C16311T  C16519T

HVR2  G146t  C 152T G185A  C195T  A247G  C 295T  315.1C  C462T  T489C  522.1A



Shawn Field                         U2---------Ursula, the first migrants into Europe lived near Delphi, Greece 45000 yrs ago.

HVR1   16051G  16129C  16182C  16183C  16189C  16298C  16362C  16519C  16526A

HVR2   73G         152C      217C      263G  309.1C  315.1C  340T  508G


Sharon K Fields                             U5-----  Below

A16129g   T16187c   T16223c   G16230a

C16270t    T16278c   C16287T   C16311T


Forest A Field                      U5B1d-----Ursula---migrated into Europe from the near East around 50,000 years ago.  U5 is the oldest haplotype in Europe.  The U5B1, a branch of the U5 family, likely began in the Saami a reindeer herding people in Northern Scandinavia.

HVR1   16192T   16218T  16320T  16270T

HVR2   73G  263G  150T  152C  315.1C


Mark E Field                          V--------Velda lived in northern Spain 17000 yrs ago.

HVR1   16216G  16298C 

HVR2   72C     263G    309.1C    315.1C



Dorothy Louise Sosebee    K-------Katrina lived near Venice, Italy 15000 yrs ago.

HVR1   16185T  16224C  16311C  16362C  16519C


Sarah E Collins  ------------------K1b1a1

HVR 1  16224c   16248t     16311c     16319a                HVR2  73g   152c   263g   309.1c

16463g   16519c                                                                                309.2c  315.1c   523.1c   523.2a



Christopher E Fields             X--------Xenia lived in central and northern Europe, 25000 yrs ago.  She and relatives hunted the tundra animals such as Bison.  Later some of her descendants migrated across the land bridge from Siberia to Alaska.   They became mothers of many Native Americans.

HVR1   16183C  16189C  16223T  16255A  16278T  16519C

HVR2   73G   153G   195C  225A  263G  315.1C



Joe L Fields                         H2a2---------Helena lived in Eastern Europe 25000 yrs ago.  large concentrations are in the Caucasus

HVR1   16235G  16291T  16293G  16400T         and central Asia.

 F 69

Douglas Drake             H5a1--------Central Europe in small numbers


F 79

Floyd Fields                        H6c



Jeffrey M Fields                    H--------------Began 25,000 years ago.  Helena concentrations are highest in Germany and Scotland.

HVR1   16519C

Sarah M Kempin                                H


Dale Kenneth Fields          H----------------

 HVR1   16519C


Lynda Troutt Murphy         H-------

HVR1  16104a  16519c 263g  315.1c


Sarah K Kempin                 H----

C16104a    A16129g    T16187G    C16189T

T16223c     G16230a    C16278c     C16311T


Floyd Dean Fields---------------H


 Sarah E Collins-----------------K

HVR1   16224c   16248t   16311c  16319c   HVRD2  73g  152c  263g  309.1c

              16463g   16519c                                             309.2c  315.1c  523..1c  523.2a


  Katrine lived near Venice 15,000 years ago.  Then the sea was 100 miles away and there was a vast forest.  Her band lived in the northern 

   area backed up aganist the steep ramparts of the Alps.  Her appearance was fair hair and green-brown eyes.  Her band hunted Ibex and

Chamois at the base of the Alps.  Wolfs in this area began to associate with humans.  Eight thousand years later a descendant trying to

cross the Alps from Northern Italy was killed.  Today we know him as the Ice Man.

 Luella Beal-------------L3f

This is a close relative of Mitochondrial Eve who lived in Africa more than 60,000 years ago.







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