Notes for understanding results:

General Information

  1. The first column is "ID", which is a number assigned to track the individual within the project.
  2. The "Name" column is intended to list the "Earliest Known Ancestor" - which we prefer.  If we can't find this in the field in "Preferences"  or through a pedigree, we shorten the first names to initials.  (Some admins will state "Not Provided" when there is no Earliest Known Ancestor
  3. Haplogroups (abbreviated as "Haplo" in the Results table):
    • A Green Haplogroup result was determined by actual testing - with a SNP test (pronounced "snip")
    • A Red Haplogroup result has been estimated by FTDNA - using their internal database.  
    • A Black Haplogroup estimate was determined by some other estimating procedure
    • Sometimes, there is no haplogroup estimate - which is shown with a "-".  In those cases, FTDNA will (at their expense - and on their own timetable) arrange for a SNP test to determine the haplogroup
  4. Lineage:
    • A Lineage is "declared" when two men are matching 23/25 or better.  A "Lineage" is a genetic family who share a "recent" common ancestor.   The men in the Lineage "match".
    • Results shown together in a color group and assigned to a Lineage share a "recent" common ancestor - generally since the advent of surnames (c1100) and probably in the last 2-400 years - or even less.  The common ancestor could be the earliest ancestor on the oldest pedigree or could have lived as little as one generation earlier - or could have lived centuries earlier than any of the known ancestors. 
    • The coloration of a Lineage is simply to show matching.  A specific color has no meaning - other than showing the match.
  5. Mutations:
    • Mutations from the typical result (which is probably the haplotype of the common ancestor) are shown in a contrasting color. 
    • Where the mutation is matching a mutation from another result within the Lineage, the match likely indicates a more recent shared common ancestor (or a "branch" within the Lineage.) - as the two men probably both inherited the mutation from a recent common ancestor. 
    • Mutations with no match have no significance at this time- but may be useful at some future date.
  6. For general information on Results