Skip to Content


Project Home Page 


The mtDNA-T2 project now operates at

The data provided here was current when posted, but should be viewed with caution, as the project is constantly gaining new information



DNA testing is the newest tool available to genealogists. The mtDNA test helps genealogists verify their maternal ancestry (mother's mother's ... mother's line). It provides invaluable data that can be obtained in no other way. Use of mtDNA for genealogical purposes is still in its infancy. This project will be exploring how to best fulfill the goal of using mtDNA for genealogy.

This information announces a new research project involving mtDNA haplogroup T and its subgroups which will use the Full mtDNA test (FGS) to further refine our understanding of the T group.

Bottom Line:

1. We hope all those who have already done the Full mtDNA test will join the project.

2. FTDNA will perform the Full mtDNA test at a cost of $361 USD for each of us who haven't already Full mt tested - ***if our haplogroup is already tested as T our DNA is already in FTDNA's custody***.

Details and join link at:

Background Story:

The scientific community has determined which subgroups exist for various haplogroups in a piece-meal process, occasionally relabelling the haplogroup trees as new data has sporadically been discovered. For haplogroup T in particular, there are now multiple subgroup classification schemes, some depending on the mtDNA Control Region (i.e., HVR1 and HVR2) and others depending on the Coding Region (which is essentially all of the mtDNA genome other than HVR1 and HVR2). In some cases these classification schemes disagree with each other, so for instance some people might be designated as T5 based on a Control Region classification but they might also be labeled as belonging to the T2 subgroup based on their Coding Region. The unfortunate result of this lack of consistency among the various classification schemes is a combination of confusion as well as a growing need to develop a single unifying classification scheme that relies on both the Control Region as well as the Coding Region (i.e., that relies on the Full Genomic Sequence).

So it is with much excitement that we now are able to announce that a scientific research project with the goal of developing a comprehensive structure for haplogroup T has now been started. The research team for this project currently involves Terry Barton, Sjana Bauer, and Elizabeth Kipp, each of whom is involved as a coordinator of one of the three genealogical projects for haplogroup T registered with FamilyTreeDNA, as well as David Pike, who is an associate professor of mathematics and computer science at Memorial University of Newfoundland. Dr. Pike is also the author of a previous study of haplogroup T and its subgroups; his paper, based on just HVR1 data, can be read at

The notion behind the Haplogroup T FGS Research Project is to perform a similar analysis, but this time from a large collection of Full Genomic Sequence results from people in haplogroup T. The Full Genomic Sequence (FGS) consists of the complete analysis of a person's mtDNA.

The success of the Haplogroup T FGS Research Project relies heavily on the participation of people who know from previous DNA tests that they are members of the haplogroup. It is our goal to enlist as many members of haplogroup T as we can to join this project and contribute their mtDNA test results to the set of data that will ultimately be analysed. You are eligible to join our research project if you have had a mtDNA test that showed that you belong to haplogroup T.

Our project has no source of funds that can be used to pay for the FGS tests that will be involved. However, we are grateful for the enthusiastic support of FamilyTreeDNA, which has generously agreed to offer discounted FGS pricing to members of the research project.

Specifically, FamilyTreeDNA has agreed to perform the genetic analysis at a cost of $361 US for each participant whose DNA is already in FamilyTreeDNA's custody. To compare, the normal cost to upgrade from a standard HVR1 mtDNA test to a FGS "Mega" test would be $460. So we are hopeful that many people will see this as a valuable opportunity to upgrade their mtDNA rsults to the FGS "Mega" level while at the same time making a contribution to science.

If you are a member of haplogroup T, please consider this message an invitation to join us in this research project.

More details about the project can be found on its website, hosted by FamilyTreeDNA at:

Included on the website are instructions for how to request to join the project and obtain the FGS discount.

Thank-you for your consideration,

- Terry, Sjana, Elizabeth, and David.



Purpose and Scope:

1. Help researchers on common or related families work together to find their common maternal heritage (See the Matriarch Page)

2. This project is for all those whose mtDNA has been tested and found to be in Haplogroup T2

4. We welcome additions to the maternal lines (daughter's daughter's ...daughters) of the earliest known maternal ancestor of each of those lines.


FamilyTree DNA Project Page: Click here to order a DNA test now


Group admins

Project Administrators