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« on: February 09, 2013, 04:55:13 PM »

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The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy (Русская версия): Том 5, №1, 2013 год
ISSN: 1920-2997 © Все права защищены RJGG
Received: January 15 2013; accepted: January 25 2013;
published: January 31 2013

The Y-DNA analysis of Clan Colquhoun.  Researching Umfridus (Humphrey) de Kilpatrick

Akper Aliev
Ross Kilpatrick
Anthony Kirk

The clans are one of the Scottish national traditions – large groups of families, bearing usually one surname and origin from a hypothetical common ancestor.
One of these Clans is the western highland Clan Colquhoun; many members of this clan now live in UK, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and other countries.
Despite this, they have not lost interest in the clan history and the personality of its founder. Some members of this clan from these different countries decided to find out the family tree using modern Y-DNA research methods, because DNA analysis is the only way to accurately establish the fact of the origin of different men from a
common ancestor. Members of the Clan Colquhoun founded two Y-DNA projects –«Calhoun Surname Project» [1] and «Kirkpatrick- Kilpatrick Surname Project» [2]. Let us consider the origin of this clan on the basis of the Y-DNA of these

Statement of the problem
The ancestor of Clan Colquhoun was Umfridus
de Kilpatrick also known as Humphrey de
Kilpatrick and also Hunfrio de Kilpatrick. He was
born about 1190 A.D. in Kilpatrick, Dumbartonshire
Scotland. The town of Old Kilpatrick is situated
on the Clyde River at Dumbartonshire in
Scotland. In 142 A.D. Lollius Urbicus, Roman
Governor of Britain built the Antonine Wall which
stretched from West Kilpatrick to Bridgeness.
The Antonine Wall and its associated forts were
built to keep out the barbarian Caledonians and
Picts from the highlands. There is evidence that
some of the cohorts defending the Antonine Wall
were Thracians from the Balkans [3]. Haplogroup
E1b1b1a1b (V13) is known to be common
in the Balkans [4]. It is therefore possible that
the Kilpatrick-Colquhoun line originated from
one of these Balkans brought to Scotland by the
Romans and whose descendants remained in the
area which would become known as Kilpatrick.
With the arrival of the Normans in 1066,
people were made to use surnames/family
names for tax purposes. Some people chose
their occupation such as baker or miller as their
surname/family name whereas others took on
the name of the place where they lived. The ancestors
of Humphrey de Kilpatrick took the name Kilpatrick.
During the period 1214-1249 Humphrey de
Kilpatrick for service to King Alexander II received
the lands of Colquhoun which had been
forfeited by Gilbert Laird of Colquhoun. Humphrey
de Kilpatrick became the first Chief of the
Colquhoun Clan yet his Grandson Ingram 1280-
1308 also known as Ingelram or even Ingelramus
is suspected as being the first to change his
name from de Kilpatrick to Ingram de Colquhoun
In 1368 Sir Robert Colquhoun married the
Fair Maid of Luss who was heiress to lands at
Luss. The current Chief of the Clan is Sir Malcolm
Colquhoun of Luss.
Nowadays the numerous alleged descendants
of Humphrey de Kilpatrick are known under the
The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy (Русская версия): Том 5, №1, 2013 год
ISSN: 1920-2997 © Все права защищены RJGG
surnames of Kilpatrick, Colquhoun, Calhoun and
other variants of spelling (Calhoun, Cahoon, Cahoone,
Kirkpatrick, Kirk, etc.). Also there are
men that have identical DNA with members of
Clan Colquhoun but they do not have the Colquhoun
surname. Some of these surnames include:
Apperson, Epperson, Dean, Conkey,
McConkey, Macaulay, Woolfork, Halliday, Pearigen,
Tipton, Turnbull, Scott, Thompson, Tussing
and Watson.

At the beginning of 18th century the Clan
Chieftain, who had no male heirs, passed his
title to his son-in-law James Grant from the Clan
Grants. Sons of James Grant and their subsequent
descendants are known under the surnames
of Colquhoun (Calhoun, Cahoon) and are
considered as members of Clan Colquhoun too.
Humphrey de Kilpatrick lived about 800
years ago, 500 years before James Grant, therefore,
hypothetically, most part of the clan members
are the descendants of Humphrey, and a
smaller part are the descendants of James. The
descendants of James have the surnames of
Colquhoun, Calhoun and other close variants of
its spellings.

As Humphrey lived 800 years ago and based
on the current understanding of the mutation
rates of Y-STR markers, we can confidently assert
that the haplotypes of his descendants
should be very close to each other and have the
same characteristic DYS values [6].
It logically follows that the haplotypes of
descendants of James Grant, (who lived just 300
years ago), should be even more closely related.
The founder of Clan Grant (Kenneth MacAlpin)
lived in the 9th century. Therefore the haplotypes
of his descendants should also be similar.
Accordingly, the descendants of James Grant, in
general, should be the carriers of the same haplogroup
and have the same characteristical DYS
values like that of Clan Grant.

The analysis and discussion

Analysis of the Y-DNA data from «Calhoun
surname project» and «Kirkpatrick-Kilpatrick
surname project» shows that its members are
carriers of different haplogroups. At the time of
this writing (October 2012), the number of participants
was dominated by haplogroup
R1b1a2a1a1a (U106) (44 men) and E1b1b1a1b
(V13) (35 men).
Among the clan Grant from Grant Project [7]
carriers of haplogroup R1b1a2a1a1a (U106)
were the overwhelming majority.
Let us analyze the samples and calculate
their time to the most recent common ancestor
(TMRCA). In all samples there are haplotypes
with different lengths (12 -, 25 -, 37 - and 67-
markers) and for greater reliability of the results
of the phylogenetic tree, calculations will be carried
out with MURKA software [8] both on 12 -
and 37-marker haplotypes.
Software to work with networks of median
and Steiner trees from alignments of biological
sequences. Murka is a free software for inferring
phylogenies parsimonistic (i.e. trees of minimum
cost) alignments of biological sequences. The
theory behind this program is a combination of
the two algorithmic approaches: the construction
of median networks (introduced in early
1980 in algebra and later seemed to be very
useful in phylogenetic) and extract trees from
Steiner graphs. The advantage of this combination
is almost complete coverage of trees minimum
cost of aligning the source and tolerate
performance for many cases, just to be completely
solved by conventional methods, especially
those working with topologies. In addition
to exact algorithms, heuristics are also available.
N=number years for one generation/(
mutation rate x number of markers on
For 12 marker haplotypes:
For 12 marker haplotypes:

Carriers of haplogroup E1b1b1a1b (V13)
The clan members of haplogroup E1b1b1a1b
(V13) are the rather similar sample. According
to the E3b Project’s classification these haplotypes
attributed to E-V13*-A cluster [9] and
have these characteristical DYS values:
DYS393=12, DYS389=14/31 (DYS389-II –
DYS389-I=17), DYS460=9 or 10.
The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy (Русская версия): Том 5, №1, 2013 год
ISSN: 1920-2997 © Все права защищены RJGG
TMRCA based on «12 marker sample» is
1550±875 years (N=35 members) and based on
«37 marker sample» TMRCA is 1100±300 years
(N=23 members). In both cases within the confidence
interval it coincides with the age of
Humphrey de Kilpatrick. This suggests that the
members of E-V13*-A cluster hypothetically are
the descendants of Humphrey de Kilpatrick.
You can also note that among the Clan Grant
carriers of haplogroup E1b1b1a1b (V13) are
present in negligible percentage: just one person
among a sample of more than 100 haplotypes.
Perhaps, its presence is a result of a historical

Carriers of haplogroup R1b1a2a1a1a (U106)
Sample of the haplotypes with haplogroup
R1b1a2a1a1a (U106) is more diverse. Therefore
it is difficult to identify the characteristical DYS
values which are typical of samples with a recent
common ancestor. TMRCA for 12 markers
(N=44 members) is 3225±925 years, and for 37
markers is 4325±525 (N=38 members). In both
cases it does not fit the prospective period of
life, neither Humphrey nor Grant. This sample is
a diverse mix of very different haplotypes of
descendants of different men who lived in different
times and found themselves in a clan by external
On the 37-marker tree it is possible to separate
the individual branches ages within the confidence
interval and comparable with the age of
A: DYS385a=10, DYS391=8, DYS456=17,
DYS458=16, CDYb=39. TMRCA=775±375 years.
B: DYS385a=10, DYS439=13, DYS447=26,
DYS449=29, DYS456=15, DYS458=18,
DYS460=11, DYS570=16, GATA H4=10,
YCAb=21, TMRCA=925±325 years.
C: DYS385b=13, DYS448=18, DYS464c=16,
DYS576=19, DYS607=16, CDYa=37,
DYS460=12, TMRCA=1175±425 years.
However, none of these branches is not numerically
dominant; therefore it is difficult to
answer unequivocally which of them can claim
to be descended from Humphrey and, whose
descendants would have the overwhelming majority.
In our opinion, the set of facts indicates that
Humphrey de Kilpatrick most probably was the
carrier of E1b1b1a1b (V13) haplogroup, because
carriers of this haplogroup are not only quite
numerous among the members of the clan, but
also have a recent common ancestor who lived
in the era that we are interested.
However, the 37-marker tree R1b1a2a1a1a
(U106) clearly distinguishes a branch with carriers
of Calhoun and Colquhoun surnames with
very similar haplotypes. TMRCA of this branch is
600±250 years, which is within the confidence
interval theoretically consistent with the period
of life of James Grant. They have the characteristical
values: DYS390=23, DYS385a=11,
Let us compare these haplotypes with the
haplotypes of clan Grant. The tree of Clan Grant
and Calhoun/Colquhoun is very diverse. Its
TMRCA on 12 markers is 6350±1900 years
(N=73 members) and on 37 markers TMRCA is
5050±575 years (N=57 members), in both cases
it does not fit in the estimated life of Kenneth
McAlpine. This sample is also a mixture of descendants
of haplotypes with completely different
However, the 12 and 37-marker trees also
separated the same branch with
TMRCA=900±700 and 750±325 years, which
includes the Calhouns with the same characteristical
DYS values. However, there are no
members with such DYS values in the Grant
Project. Therefore it is so difficult to unambiguously
attribute these Calhouns as the descendants
of James Grant.

TMRCA of clan Colquhoun was calculated and
compared with the period of life of Humphrey de
Kilpatrick. With the highest probability, he was
the carrier of haplogroup E1b1b1a1b (V13) (EV13*-
A cluster) with characteristical DYS values:
DYS393=12, DYS389=14/31 (DYS389-II –
DYS389-I=17), DYS460=9 or 10.
TMRCA of carriers of Calhoun (Calhoun and
Colquhoun) surname with haplogroup
R1b1a2a1a1a (U106) with characteristical DYS
The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy (Русская версия): Том 5, №1, 2013 год
ISSN: 1920-2997 © Все права защищены RJGG
values DYS390=23, DYS385a=11, DYS385b=15 is consistent with the period of the life of James Grant. The haplotypes of Clan Grant have not yet been identified.

1. Calhoun surname project
2. Kirkpatrick-Kilpatrick surname project
3. MacPhail I.M.M, A Short History of Dumbartonshire, Bennett
& Thomson, 1962
4. Steven C. Bird. Haplogroup E3b1a2 as a Possible Indicator
of Settlement in Roman Britain by Soldiers of Balkan
Origin (online publication)
5. Anderson, W, The Scottish Nation; Or The Surnames,
Families, Literature, Honours, And Biographical History
Of The People Of Scotland., Vol.1., P.663
6. Family Tree DNA: Interpreting Genetic Distance Within
Surname Projects
12 markers:
37 markers:
7. Grant Y-STR DNA Results ~
grantdna / dna_results.html
8. MURKA phylogeny package for parsimony methods, by
Valery Zaporozhchenko, Research Centre for Medical
Genetics, Moscow, Russia:
9. E3b Project, E-V13 *-A cluster
« Last Edit: February 09, 2013, 04:59:18 PM by webmaster » Logged
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