updated 16 March 2014 At present there are twelve Short Lineages in the project. A "lineage" is when there are at least two Short family members that share a DNA match at 37 or more markers. Eleven of the twelve lineages are members of the haplogroup R1b1a2, which is the most common haplogroup in Western Europe. Because of this, any new persons joining the project should test at a minimum 37 markers. Tests at 25 markers are often inconclusive if a person may belong to a one of these established lineages, or to which one. As an example, the modal for Lineage III is a 23/25 match with S-44 of Lineage VII, which is considered "probably related," among less common halplogroups. At 37 markers the "match" of the Lineage III modal with S-44 is only 27/37, showing they do not share a common ancestor within a genealogical time frame. For those interested in the ancient origins of their haplogroup or specific clade, there are numerous sites that give information on those. One is: Geographic Spread and Ethnic Origins of European Haplogroups LINEAGE I Lineage I has fifteen members, of which thirteen have tested at least 37 markers. Two members have taken a deep clade test and this Lineage is R1b1a2a1a1a1 (R-U198). All other members would also share this and a deep clade test would not be necessary among other members unless further down- stream markers are discovered. Six of the members are exact matches for the Lineage modal at 37 markers, and three have only one mutation (not the same one). Only one member shows a paper trail to the earliest member of this Lineage, Thomas Short who was born about 1642. S-80, with their DNA match has a likely paper trail to Thomas Short, born 1642, with the DNA match providing one piece of evidence to one generation in their lineage that was a question. Five members have tested to 111 markers. S-16 remains very near the modal matching at 110/111. Ten members have a connection to southern states. One member [S-74] descends from a line that emigrated from Ireland to the United States in the 1800s. Another member's earliest ancestor [S-95] was born in 1826 in Canada. S-74 and S-95, share what appear to be branch markers with each other. [See description of branch markers below in Lineage II.] Those markers are highlighted in purple, suggesting that they share a more recent common ancestor with each other than with the other members of Lineage I. S-95 also shares what may be another branch marker with S-102, highlighted in aqua. The lingeage of S-102 is a line with connections to England. LINEAGE II Lineage II has fifteen members. Seven of those descend from Aaron Short who was born about 1735. One member is a proven descendant of Moses Short, brother to Aaron. Two members of this group has done a deep clade test, and this lineage is R1b1a2a1a1b, R-P312. Five members are descendants of John Short born in 1756 in Frederick (now Shenandoah) Co., VA. While published histories list John as the son of Thomas Short and wife Nancy, it is believed that Thomas is more likely John's brother, and both sons of Samuel Short who died in 1764 in Frederick County. The present theory is that this Samuel is a half-brother to Aaron Short and Moses Short, all three being sons of another Samuel Short. For more information on that see: Reconstructing a Short Family of Virginia Through DNA The last two member of this lineage do not have the surname Short. One [S-97] is descended from Joshua Elkins who was born about 1760 and lived in Chatham County and Cumberland County, North Carolina. The common ancestor between this line and the Short family may extend back to Europe. The other member [S-83] is descended from William Jasper Wilkins who was born about 1862, location unknown. he common ancestor of this lineage may also extend to Europe. S-72 on paper belongs to this lineage, but the DNA shows there was a non-paternal event. Jonathan Milton Short was born on 4 Dec. 1825 in Guilford Co., NC. On 23 Feb. 1826 Jonathan Short, Jr. (born about 1806) had a bastardy bond to support a child by Thankful Bland, with Isaac Armfield and Robert Ryan as his bondsmen. On 27 Sep. 1827 Thankful Bland obtained a marriage bond with Robert Armfield. When Robert Armfield petitioned in 1836 to divorce her, he testified that after being married to her for about two years, he learned that she had an adulterous relationship with Jonathan Short. After living apart several months, Robert returned to live with her. In 1835 he discovered after returning from driving the stage which he did for subsistence, he found Gorrell Forbis in his house, having been informed before then that Thankful was in the habit of receiving Forbis during his absence. The divorce was granted in 1837. S-72 is a 36/37 match with the DNA of the Armfield family of Guilford County, differing on marker 570 which is one of the fastest mutating markers. The conclusion is that Jonathan Milton Short was biologically an Armfield, with perhaps Robert Armfield being his father. Lineage II contains two interesting DNA features. The first is marker DYS444. Two proven descendants (S-20 and S-38) of Aaron have tested on this marker and both are 12, while S-87 from Moses, three of John's descendants, and S-83 and S-97 have tested for it and all are 13. As descendants from two different sons of Aaron have a 12 on this marker, this mutation appears to have occurred from Aaron's father to him, making this a "branch" marker that identifies all descendants of Aaron. Future matches to this Lineage that do not have a paper trail would know whether to look at descendants of Aaron or descendants of Moses or John for records to connect them depending on whether they had 12 or 13 on this marker. S-21 by tradition was a son of Constantine Short, son of Samuel Short and grandson of Moses Short. The mother of Alvord/Alfred Short born about 1828 married both a descendant of Aaron and a descendant of Moses. S-21 tested DYS444 and they are 12, meaning they are a descendant of Aaron (through his son Aaron, Jr.) rather than a son of Constantine (grandson of Moses). The second item of interest is marker 464. More than four copies are estimated to appear on this marker in about 1.5% of the population. Like any other mutation, this would be passed through generations. All members of Lineage II except S-97 have a minimum 6 values at 464. Nine members have taken the 464x test, which is a refinement of the standard test. Two of those were found to have 8 alleles at 464, while the others have 6, except for S-97. S-97 has only 4 alleles on DYS464, suggesting that the connection with the other members of Lineage II is more distant. At some point this lineage mutated to six alleles and S-83 and the Short members of this lineage would share a more recent common ancestor. LINEAGE III Lineage III has four members, and one possible member. The ancestor of S-27 was thought by tradition a son of the ancestor of S-4 and S-90, and the DNA proves they share a common ancestor. S-67 is also descended from the same person. The one interesting aspect of this Lineage is the 2-step mutation on marker 439. S-2 is a possible member of this lineage, but only tested at 12 markers. They are now deceased, so an upgrade is not possible. The modal for this lineage is a 66/67 match with Gilliland Group 1, the one difference being on DYS437. Members of the Gilliland family were also in Washington County, Virginia, as this SHORT lineage was. LINEAGE IV This Lineage has three members. S-33 and S-39 are father and son. S-62 shares the common ancestor of John Short born in 1712 that S-33 and S-39 list as the son of Abraham. S-62 has not supplied further details on their lineage to John, so it is not known how much of the same lineage they share with the other two. There are differences on five markers between the two, but two of these are on CDYa and CDYb, which are the two "fastest" mutating markers of those tested by FTDNA. Normally their match at 37 markers would be marginal as to whether they shared a common ancestor, but is enhanced in that they both have paper trails to the same ancestry. As more descendants from this ancestry test, a clearer picture should be formed as to what the ancestral haplotype markers are. Most likely one differs by two from it, and the other by three. LINEAGE V Lineage V has nine members. Both S-60 and S-76 descend from James Tipton Short (born 1820) but none of the others have established a clear paper trail to any of the others. One member matches the modal at 67 markers. Since S-35 and S-65 share the same mutation on marker 458, they may share a common ancestor more recent than the others. As 458 is a "fast" marker, it may also be that they had the same mutation independently. One member of this group is a Tomberlin, born in the same area as some Short members of this Lineage. That would suggest there was an adoption or other non-paternal event in the lineage of S-100. S-103 has a paper trail to the same ancestor William Grancer Short (b. 1765-1769) as S-60 and S-76, but from a first wife Eliabeth Bolling, rather than the second wife Mary Birchfield of S-60 and S-76. S-103 does not match Lineage V, or any other Short at the present time. This is a lineage which may benefit by upgrading to 111 markers to see if those reveal any branch markers which may separate those that are more closely related to each other than the others. LINEAGES VI and VII Lineages VI and VII will be discussed together as both claim ancestry from the same person, William Short who died in 1659 Surry Co., VA. Lineage VI claims descent through his son Thomas and grandson William (although some are not certain of those generations) while Lineage VII claims descent through his son Thomas and grandson Robert. Much of the information on the early generations on these lines found on various Internet websites is ultimately taken from Josephine Short Lynch, Short: An Early Virginia Family,, (---: J. S. Lynch, 1970). New information regarding these lines has come to light in the 41 years since her publication. Lynch listed that William SHORT who died in 1769 (see Lineage VII) married Sarah "Robinson" [Roberson/Robertson], and that his son William Short who died in 1787 married Sarah Baugh. Lynch supplied no reasons or sources why she believed the younger William's wife Sarah was a Baugh. The will of John Robertson naming his daughter Sarah SHORT. John Roberson Will To his daughter Sarah Short he left "one Negro wench named Cate and her children." Note also that he had sons named Nicholas Robertson and John Robertson. One bequest in the will of William Short who died in 1787 was to his daughter Susanna Clayton whom he left a Negro girl Nancy and the next child that my woman Cate brings. A Chancery Court case in Brunswick County was filed in 1782 by John Robertson and wife Elizabth, and Nicholas Robertson and wife Tabitha against the executors [William Short, Jacob Short, and Charles Abernathy] of William Short [who died in 1769]. 1782-008 Brunswick Co., VA Chancery Court Case That record shows that Tabitha and Elizabeth were daughters of William who died in 1769. If it were the William Short who died in 1769 that married Sarah Roberson, that would mean that Tabitha's and Elizabeth's husbands would have been their uncles, brothers of their mother. It is believed more likely that it is the younger William who died in 1787 and named his will Sarah in his will that married Sarah Roberson. The Patriarch's Page has been changed to reflect that. In 1788 another case was filed, and William, Jr. was deceased by that time. 1788-006 Brunswick Co., VA Chancery Court Case His will was probated in 1787. The earliest ancestor of Lineage VI (proved by DNA through different sons) is Cornelius Short born about 1700. The first record known of Cornelius was in 1737 in Henrico Co., VA according to Lynch. No paper trail exists to tie this man to William Short who died in 1659. Based on not finding a connection to other Short lines, she stated, "We have to assign therefore Cornelius SHORT of Henrico County as a descendant of William SHORT of Surry County." Based on the non-DNA match with Lineage VII, that "assignment" may have been in error. Lineage VI has one possible member in S-86 in a line that went from England to New Zealand in the 1800s. The haplotype of Lineage VI is very close to the modal for R-M222. S-86 is a 60/67 match with the Modal for Lineage VI. S-86 probably shares a common ancestor with the other members of Lineage VI that dates to very roughly, the 1300-1500 time period. The earliest ancestor that can be stated with certainty (based on the DNA from differnt sons) of Lineage VII is William Short who died in 1769. At this point in time, it is believed that this lineage may be the actual lineage (in some manner) of William who died in 1659, although it is not certain that Lynch's listing for the ancestry of William who died in 1769 is correct. S-96 descends from a Shortt born about 1720 from Tipperary, Ireland. That lineage may connect to a Short family in the 1500s from Ashley, Staffordshire. See the Patriarch's Page for details. These lineages would greatly benefit by a descendant from William's son William (b. ca. 1641; died 1676 Surry Co., VA) taking a DNA test to see whether they match Lineage VI or Lineage VII. LINEAGE VIII Lineage VIII has two members, both descendants of Aaron Short born about 1778 and who died in 1847 in Lawrence County, KY. S-57 is a 37/37 match with kit #114111 of the Grigsby DNA Project, and is a close match to many other members. Before DNA testing, many thought that this line would match Lineage II, and that Aaron may have been a brother to Thomas Short [Jr.] who was born about 1775 and died in 1853 in Lawrence County, KY. This Thomas's death record states he was the son of Thomas Short and wife Nancy (see Lineage II). Thomas Short, Sr. had a sister Permelia/Mildred "Milly" Short born about 1758 who had children outside of marriage in the 1790s with Richard Thompson in Russell County, VA. Russell County, Virginia Law Order Book 2 (1792-1799) There is a difference of opinions by Thompson researchers on whether there were one or two Richard Thompsons in Russell County and whether the same Richard Thompson who married Margaret [Barr] was the one who had children by Milly Short. Both proponents list a son Samuel Thompson by his wife Margaret. Note that in 1830 Lawrence County, KY that Aaron Short was living next to this Samuel Thompson. 1830 Lawrence County, KY, Pages 289-291 When Samuel Thompson died in 1852 Lawrence County his parents were listed as Richard and Margaret. 1852 Deaths Lawrence County, KY That Aaron Short lived next to Samuel Thompson in 1830 would be another indication of a connection between the families. Thomas Short, Sr. and John Short [of Lineage II] were in the militia in 1769 in Augusta County, VA with Benjamin Grigsbee, before they moved to Russell County. They also had a step sister Winfred Elizabeth Breeding who married John Grigsby. Notes for John Breeding It is with a descendant of John Grigsby and Winifred Breeding that S-57 has their 37/37 match kit 114111). John Grigsby 15 Oct. 1752 VA; m. 6 Apr. 1778 Winifred Breeding; d. 1826 Hawkins Co.,TN o Willaim Grigsby b. ca. 1779; d. 1865 Hawkins Co., TN o Willaim Grigsby b. ca. 1818 TN; m. Catherine -?- o William Ross Grigsby b. Oct. 1870 (1900 census,more likely 1868) TN ; m. Clara B. -?- o son o kit 114085 o Nathaniel Grigsby b. 1806 Hawkins Co., TN; d. 1859 Hawkins Co., TN o Henry Grigbsy b. ca. 1834 Hawkins Co., TN; m. Lucinda o Andrew J. Grigsby b. May 1854 TN; m. Martha A. Johnson o William Calvin Grigsby b. Mar. 1878 Russell Co., VA o son o kit 114111 While the 37/37 match with a descendant of John Grigsby cannot prove that John was the father of Aaron Short, Aaron's father would have to be a very close relative. Note that only a few Grigsby men have the 16 on DYS458 that descendants of Aaron Short share. After moving from Rockingham Co., VA to Washington (later Russell) County, VA, John Breeden, Senr. in 1784 sold two tracts to John Breeden, Junior in Rockingham County. One of the witnesses for both deeds was John Grigsby. There are also other associations of the Short and Grisby families in Rockingham Co., VA. It should also be noted that Aaron Short named a daughter Mildred. One additonal note about this Lineage is that S-50 has a paper trail back to Aaron Short. There was a family legend that there was an orphan in their line with a possible birth name Rose that was adopted and raised by a Short. S-50 is a 37/37 match with the Rose family, and does not match that of the other two Aaron Short descendants. They believe it is most likely that it was James Short born about 1853 that was the Rose raised as a Short. LINEAGE IX This lineage has two members that are a 36/37 match, the one mutation being on CDY, which has the fastest mutation rate of all 67 markers in the standard FTDNA test. The earliest proved ancestor of S-63 is William Jackson Short who was born about 1815 in KY. They believed that he may have been the son of John T. Short (1775-1835) and wife Eve Monicalin, and grandson of Jacob Short (1750-1805) and Eve Gottschalk. Their DNA match with S-41 who claims descent from Jacob and Eve proves they do share a common ancestor. LINEAGE X This lineage has five members, and one possible members. S-43 and S-69 are a 25/25 match. S-43 is deceased, so an upgrade in their markers is not possible, but the two do share a paper trail to the same ancestor, Andrew Short born in 1789 in VA. S-84 of this lineage is descended from Hezekiah Short of New York. The fourth member is a descendant of William Henry Tilley of KY. The fifth memeber, S-71 has a lineage entirely in England, and specifically to Devon. S-13 is from North Devon, but has only tested 12 markers. Other than the two descendants of Andrew, a common ancestor between the other members has not been found at present. LINEAGE XI Lineage XI has two members that are an exact match at 25 markers and a 65/67 match. One of those mutations is on DYS CDY, which is fastest mutating marker in the 67. These two lineages are closely related, but that could be anywhere from their earliest known ancestors being brothers, to their common ancestor being 200 years (or more) earlier than those ancestors. LINEAGE XII Lineage XII has two members that match at 67 markers. S-78 is descended from Daniel Short born about 1725 in Anson County, NC. They share a common ancestor with S-32 descended from Daniel's grandson John Short born about 1787, but they have only tested 12 markers. S-91 is descended from Francis Marion Short born about 1839 in Alabama. S-55 and S-23 have only tested 12 markers but on paper are also descended from Thomas Short born about 1818, the same ancestor as for S-32. S-55 and S-23 match each other, but do not match S-32 or other members of Lineage XII, being members of a different haplogroup in haplogroup H. Somewhere within their lineage back to Thomas born 1818 there is apparently a non-paternal event.