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Technical terminology (e.g., the word "haplogroup") is defined in the ISOGG glossary here.  The ISOGG tree for Haplogroup I is here and for Haplogroup R here.

Haplogroup I-M253

* Somerset (England) to United States (lineage 1):   Haplo  I-M253

The paper trails for kits B1358, 221837, 229075 and 338700, which show nearly identical test results and are shown as a confirmed "lineage", lead to John Archerd of Mason County, Kentucky and later Clermont County, Ohio. John's grave monument says that he was born in "Somersetshire on July 4, 1770. An old family story speculates that the surname was Orchard in Somerset but was pronounced to sound like Archard. The story also speculates that John's parents were Thomas Orchard and Jane Russell.

* Somerset (England) to Canada  (Separate Lineage):    Haplo  I-M253

The paper trail for kit 214934 leads to William Orchard of Dunster parish in Somerset, England. He was baptised there in 1774 by Robert and Mary (Baker), Orchard, who married in 1764. The test results of the Canadian man show a large genetic seperation from Lineage 1of Haplogroup I1, indicating a separate lineage.

 

Haplogroup I-M223

* UK to Canada   (Lineage 11):    Haplo  I-M223

The paper trail for father and son kits 381857 and 301858, which show identical results lead from UK to Canada

* Cornwall (England) to United States  (Separate Lineage):    Haplo  I-M223

The paper trail for kit 230645 leads to John Orchard. He married Mary Hambley on October 16, 1820 in Lesnewth Parish in Cornwall, England. John and Mary and their children appear in the 1850 U. S. census for Poughkeepsie, Dutchess County, New York.

 

Haplogroup R-M269

* Bristol (England) to South Africa  (Lineage 1):    Haplo  R-M269

The paper trails for kits 214933 and 223311, which show identical test results and are shown as a confirmed "lineage", lead to James Orchard, whose 1832 Cape Town marriage record (wife Ellen Vippond) states that he was from Bristol (presumably England).

* England and United States  (Lineage 11):      Haplo  R-M269

The paper trails for kits 240491 and 338764 only reflect one mutation.  The family leads back to Philip Orchard, born 1687, and Mary Bassett, who died in 1750 and had nine children.  Francis Orchard an ancestor was born 11 Feb 1727 in Mawgan in Menage and died 21 March 1806 in Mawgan in Meneage.  He was married to Alice Pascoe, born 1730 in Mawgan in Meneage and some members moved to the Redruth area and others to USA and Australia.   Kit 240491 lives in a town near Plymouth, in Devon and kit 338764 in USA.

Haplogroup R-P311

* Wiltshire (England) to United States (Separate Lineage):   Haplo R-P311

The paper trail for kit 231880 leads to James Archard. He was baptized in 1775 in Bromham Parish in Wiltshire, England. His father was Philip Archard from the same parish. James' grandfather appears to be John Archard, also of Bromham Parish. John was born about 1710.

* Still in England   (Separate Lineage):    Haplo R-P311

The paper trail for kit 229647 leads to Albert Thomas Orchard of Bristol, England. He was born in 1857 to George Orchard and Anna Goodman. George was born about 1822 in Wootton Courtney Parish, Somerset.



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