Each generation mitochondrial DNA is passed from mother to children. Men do not pass mtDNA on. The ancestral mother can be located by tracing the line back through the generations. The following is a quote from, The Seven Daughters of Eve. The author is Bryan Sykes, a genetist at Oxford.
Until I started this work I always thought of my ancestors, if I thought of them at all, as some sort of vague and amorphous collection of dead people with no solid connection to me or the modern world, and certainly no real relevance to either. But once I had realized, through the genetics, that one of my ancestors was actually there, taking part, it was no longer merely interesting---it is overwhelming. DNA is the messenger which illuminates that connection, handed down from generation to generation, carried, literally, in the bodies of my ancestors. Each message traces a journey through time and space, a journey made by the long lines that spring from the ancestral mothers. We will never know all the details of these journeys over thousands of years and thousands of miles, but we can at least imagine them.
I am on a stage. Before me, in the dim light, all the people who have ever lived are lined up, rank upon rank, stretching far into the distance. They make no sound that I can hear, but they are talking to each other. I have in my hand the end of the thread which connects me to my ancestral mother way at the back. I pull on the thread and one womans face in every generation, feeling the tug, looks up at me. Their faces stand out from the crowd and they are illuminated by a strange light. These are my ancestors. I recognize my grandmother in the front row, but in the generations behind her the faces are unfamiliar to me. I look down the line. The women do not all look the same. Some are tall, some are short, some are beautiful, some are plain, some look wealthy, others poor. I want to ask them each in turn about their lives, their hopes and their disappointments, their joys and their sacrifices. I speak, but they cannot hear. Yet I feel the strong connection. These are all my mothers who passed this precious messenger from one to another through a thousand births, a thousand screams, a thousand embraces of a thousand new-born babies. The thread becomes an umbilical cord.
Curtis Clark Cardinal---------A2-C64T
Noel Edward Fields T2b---------------Tara lived near Tuscany, Italy 17000 ago.
HVR1 16126C 16294T 16296T 16304C 16519C
HVR2 73G 263G 309.1C 315.1C
Dennis Lyn Fields J--------Jasmine lived in Syria 10000 yrs ago. Europe was covered with ice. The middle East was a lush grassland covered with wild grasses--Millet, Wheat, Rice, etc. They began collecting the seed and soon began planting. Her descendants were the first farmers. They changed the world.
HVR1 16069T 16126C 16145A 16231C 16261T
Patricia Ann Adams J---------Jasmine
HVR1 16069T 16126C 16222T
Fay A Solomon-------------------- J1c3b-------Jasmine
HVR1 16069T T16126C T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T C16519T
HVR2 G146t C 152T G185A C195T A247G C 295T 315.1C C462T T489C 522.1A
Shawn Field U2---------Ursula, the first migrants into Europe lived near Delphi, Greece 45000 yrs ago.
HVR1 16051G 16129C 16182C 16183C 16189C 16298C 16362C 16519C 16526A
HVR2 73G 152C 217C 263G 309.1C 315.1C 340T 508G
Sharon K Fields U5----- Below
A16129g T16187c T16223c G16230a
C16270t T16278c C16287T C16311T
Forest A Field U5B1d-----Ursula---migrated into Europe from the near East around 50,000 years ago. U5 is the oldest haplotype in Europe. The U5B1, a branch of the U5 family, likely began in the Saami a reindeer herding people in Northern Scandinavia.
HVR1 16192T 16218T 16320T 16270T
HVR2 73G 263G 150T 152C 315.1C
Mark E Field V--------Velda lived in northern Spain 17000 yrs ago.
HVR1 16216G 16298C
HVR2 72C 263G 309.1C 315.1C
Dorothy Louise Sosebee K-------Katrina lived near Venice, Italy 15000 yrs ago.
HVR1 16185T 16224C 16311C 16362C 16519C
Sarah E Collins ------------------K1b1a1
HVR 1 16224c 16248t 16311c 16319a HVR2 73g 152c 263g 309.1c
16463g 16519c 309.2c 315.1c 523.1c 523.2a
Christopher E Fields X--------Xenia lived in central and northern Europe, 25000 yrs ago. She and relatives hunted the tundra animals such as Bison. Later some of her descendants migrated across the land bridge from Siberia to Alaska. They became mothers of many Native Americans.
HVR1 16183C 16189C 16223T 16255A 16278T 16519C
HVR2 73G 153G 195C 225A 263G 315.1C
Joe L Fields H2a2---------Helena lived in Eastern Europe 25000 yrs ago. large concentrations are in the Caucasus
HVR1 16235G 16291T 16293G 16400T and central Asia.
Douglas Drake H5a1--------Central Europe in small numbers
Floyd Fields H6c
Jeffrey M Fields H--------------Began 25,000 years ago. Helena concentrations are highest in Germany and Scotland.
Sarah M Kempin H
Dale Kenneth Fields H----------------
Lynda Troutt Murphy H-------
HVR1 16104a 16519c 263g 315.1c
Sarah K Kempin H----
C16104a A16129g T16187G C16189T
T16223c G16230a C16278c C16311T
Floyd Dean Fields---------------H
Sarah E Collins-----------------K
HVR1 16224c 16248t 16311c 16319c HVRD2 73g 152c 263g 309.1c
16463g 16519c 309.2c 315.1c 523..1c 523.2a
Katrine lived near Venice 15,000 years ago. Then the sea was 100 miles away and there was a vast forest. Her band lived in the northern
area backed up aganist the steep ramparts of the Alps. Her appearance was fair hair and green-brown eyes. Her band hunted Ibex and
Chamois at the base of the Alps. Wolfs in this area began to associate with humans. Eight thousand years later a descendant trying to
cross the Alps from Northern Italy was killed. Today we know him as the Ice Man.
This is a close relative of Mitochondrial Eve who lived in Africa more than 60,000 years ago.