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Updated: 18 Oct 2010

# Indicates recent change/addition

* There is value in having the DNA participants of all Lineages test to 67 markers.  We have found distinguishing family branching markers at the 37-67 marker level.  The variability of DYS534 has proven quite useful.

Lineage I - R1b1b2a1a1e – L257+

The Haplogroup for Lineage 1 has been confirmed as L257+. This is so new that only 5 men have tested positive for this SNP. More testing is needed to learn the origins of this group of men which includes Dunbar.

1. It's now more likely that D-29 & D-74 share a recent common ancestor with shared mutations of 13 @ 439 & 32 @ 449 since all 37-67 markers match exactly.  D-29's shared mutation of 16 at 385b & 464c with D-22 & D-35 appear to be random.  This is different from the earlier analysis below.  D-59's shared mutation of 13 @ 439 with D-29 & D-74 appears to be random. 

a. D-16, D-22, D-35, and D-29 share a common mutation of 16 at 385b.  This may be an indication of a shared common ancestor or it may be a random match.  (This is the only marker mutation shared by all 4 men.)

b. If shared, D-16 was on the same branch with D-35, D-22, & D-29 and the 16 at 385b occurred before the split – and the g’s on 464x occurred after the split.

c. D-29 should definitely get 464x tested as it will put him with D-16 or with D-22 & D-35.

d. However in light of Panel 5 testing, D-16 & D-22 are different on all 3 results at 399X and it seems unlikely that D-16 shares the branch with D-35, D-22, & D-29 and it’s suspect that the shared 16 at 385b is a random match.

e. D-35 & D-22 share 16 at 534, confirming their more recent Matheson ancestor.

f. D-16 & DS-130 share a recent common ancestor and is confirmed by shared mutations at DYS 385b & DYS 349.  D-121 shares these same two mutations.  These could be a shared mutations or random. D-137 also shares 11 @ DYS349. Information is insufficient at this time. It’s recommended that DS-130 test with FTDNA to discover if the untested markers match or this branch has picked up any new mutations.

2. D-1, D-19, & D-112 share 4 mutations that the other members of Lineage 1 do not have.  It seems certain that these three men share a common ancestor with each other before they share a common ancestor with the rest of Lineage 1.  D-19 & D-112 share a known common ancestor and 5 mutations which date back to 1780’s thus showing the common ancestor with D-1 dates back much further. D-90 shares 3 mutations with D-1, D-19, & D-112 but has 6 additional mutations uncommon with the others. It is highly recommended that D-90 test SNP 257 to confirm a relationship with the Dunbar’s.

3. D-4, D-5, D-12, D-30, D-47, D-65, D-78, D-83, D-88, D-119, D-140 all have a paper trailed descent from a shared common 17th century ancestor.  D-12’s 16 at 456 is consistent with the internal branching of this ancestor as does 16 @ DYS534 show the internal branching between D-4, D-5, D-30, D-47, D-78, & D-119.  D-83’s 17@534 has mutated from 16 to 17 noting the branching w/i this family.  D-23, D-125, D-143, D-26, D-44, & D-69’s results match closely with these men and are consistent with a relationship which, because of the known paper trails, must have branched off prior to c1650.  D-64 shares 2 common mutations with D-4, D-119, & D-83 and it seems certain that these 4 men share a more recent common ancestor.  Family Finder testing may prove this relationship.

4. D-25, D-37, D-38, & D-142 share a 15 at marker 464c consistent with them having a common surname and a more recent shared ancestor.  D-2 shares this same mutation at 464c and this may indicate a possible relationship between these participants which, in depth, genealogical research may elucidate.  10 @ DYS 572 has shown a closer relationship between D-25 & D-37.  D-25’s mutation of 14 @ DYS437 probably is a recent mutation denoting a branching of the line.  D-38 needs to upgrade his markers to clarify his relationship with D-25 & D-37.

5. D-2, D-27, D-33, D-107, DA-97, & D-41, D-120, D-110, D-137: Within a Lineage, if a mutation has no match – it is simply a mutation (for now) and cannot be analyzed.  However, here are some general observations:

  1. D-27 markers are most unlike the other members of Lineage 1 and seems to indicate a much earlier branching from the main Lineage 1 stem.  D-27’s partial matches to D-19 appear to be random.
  2. D-69 & D-93 mutation of 30 @ DYS 449 could be shared or could be random - insufficient information.

c. D-33 has experienced a RecLOH event at all his mutated markers and should be looked upon as only one marker mutation in total. RecLOH at Wikipedia


6. (Allen, Morris, Wales) D-70, D-71, D-76, & D-81, D-75, D-91, & D-109 share 4-5 mutations among themselves.  It seems certain that these 7 men share a common ancestor with each other before they share a common ancestor D-75 and with the rest of Lineage. There is value in D-70 & D-91 upgrading to 67 markers. D-81 has experienced a RecLOH event at marker DYS 459b.  D-144 Stanaland shares 3 matching mutations with this group of men indicating he shares a common ancestor with these men before he shares one with the remaining Lineage 1 men.  The result of 11 @ DYS GATA-H4 is ancestral to the modal of Lineage 1 (10) suggesting this group of men may descend from a much older branch of Dunbar if not before the era of Gospatric Dunbar’s.

7. # Cockburn D-48 & D-49 (father & son), D-145, & D-148. The son has started a new mutation at DYS 390.  This line is triangulated back to 1639 and share a common ancestor before sharing an ancestor with Lineage 1.

8. & D-73, D-127 share two mutations and seems certain that these two men share a common ancestor with each other before they share a common ancestor with the rest of Lineage 1.

9. Hercus/Arcus - D-28, D-100, and D-128’s markers seem to confirm the descent of the family from the early Dunbars as indicated by historical research.  All three share 16@DYS464b & 17 @576.  While D-100 & D128 also share 9@DYS458b suggesting that the Hercus branch has branched from the Arcus line. D-100 should upgrade to 67 markers to verify 15 @ 446 is a shared mutation or a branching mutation specific to D-128.  Further testing of others should confirm this result.

10. D-122 & D98 have a paper trailed descent from a shared common 18th century ancestor. They share 3 mutations with D-98 acquiring a more recent mutation at DYS448.  D-80 is believed to share the same ancestor and should upgrade to 67 markers.

Panel 5 Results:

  1. Marker 399x looks to be very volatile.  Seven total mutations with just this one marker.  Four diverse Lineage 1 men were chosen initially which may account for the volatility.  More stability was shown within the shared common ancestor of D-4, D-5, & D-12 but the results were still erratic.
  2. D-22 still remained with all “g’s” at marker 464X versus the combination 2 c’s & 2 g’s seen with D-16, D-1, & D-4.
  3. The remainder of Panel 5 appears more stable, but still showed signs of rapid change versus other men tested outside the Dunbar project.

Always, there is value in having all members of Lineage I tested to 67 markers.

Lineage 2: R1b1b2a1b5b  - M222

  1. The Haplogroup for Lineage 2 has now been confirmed as M222+ via D-39 William Dunbar III Deep Clade testing. Currently, no further SNP’s have been discovered to refine the L2 haplogroup further.
  2. Group 2 results are consistent across the group and seem to indicate a close relationship of all group members.
  3. D-7, D-15, D-68, and D-82 share a common paper trailed ancestor around 1770 in Pennsylvania. D-7's 17 @ 464c is indicative of internal branching of this ancestor, as is D-68’s 37 @ CDYb.  Even thought D-82 has the same 17 @ DYS464c, this is not a shared mutation. Paper trails show D-82 descends from the same branch as D-15 & D-68 while D-7 descends from a different branch.  If this was a shared mutation all these men would be 17 @ 464c.
  4. D-6 and D-39 share a common ancestor somewhat earlier also in Pennsylvania. D-39's additional mutations are indicative of further internal branching.
  5. D-13 & D-115 share a mutation of 11 at DYS460 with D-6. This appears to be a random mutation but, D-115 needs to upgrade to 67 markers to determine if he descends from the same line as D-6 (DYS 534=15) and D-39 or a closer match with D-13.
  6. D-11 & D-108 markers are most unlike the other members of Lineage 2 and could indicate a much earlier branching from the main stem.
  7. D-7 needs to upgrade to 67 markers to discover any possible internal branching mutations specific to his family line.
  8. It is noteworthy that, where known, the European point of origin of the earliest known ancestor is in Northern Ireland. There are 2 possible Lineage 2 men, D-31 & D111. One has Ireland roots and both should upgrade to more markers to determine if they genetically match the L2 men.
  9. R1b1b2a1b5b is the new haplogroup designation for all Lineage 2 participants.  This designation is indicative of origins to Northwest Ireland and Lowland Scotland.  There are exemplars in other parts of Ireland and Scotland as well as in Norway, Iceland, and on the European Continent.

Lineage 3 - R1b1b2a1b3 - SRY2627

  1. The Haplogroup for Lineage 3 has now been confirmed as SRY2627 via D-42 Stephen Dunbar Deep Clade testing. A new SNP has been discovered recently L276 and once made available for testing, I will recommend L3 test for this SNP.
  2. Shows a consistent result which confirms the paper trailed relationship of D-3, D-10, D-34, D-42, & D-136 to a common ancestor about 1750.   D-34, D-42, & D-136 reflect the internal branching from D-3 with different mutations and a shared mutation of 16 @ DYS534.  D-42 & D-36 reflect further branching from their shared ancestor of 35 @ CDYa.
  3. D-14 & D-113 are most unlike the other members of Lineage 3 and could indicate a much earlier branching from the main Lineage 3 stem.  D-13 has an Ulster point of origin for his earliest known ancestor. Traditional genealogy proves that the branching between his line and the rest of the group probably occurred prior to about 1660, but where this branching occurred is not known.  The same applies to D-113 who has a Scotland point of origin with a branching probably occurring prior to 1650.
  4. D-63 shares a common mutation 30 at DYS 449 with D-34.  This may indicate a possible relationship between these participants which in depth genealogical research may elucidate.
  5. D-95 has no mutations which can link him to any one particular branch. His paper trail ends at 1946.
  6. D-124 has a paper trail dating back to the surname Barr b. 1863 MO. He has a unique mutation of 37 @ CDYb denoting his specific Dunbar branch.
  7. DA-102 comes to us from AncestryDNA. More could be learned with testing at FTDNA and knowing his Dunbar ancestry.

Lineage 4 - R1b1b2a1b5b  - M222

  1. The Haplogroup for Lineage 4 has now been confirmed as M222+. Curently, no further SNP’s have been discovered to refine the L4 haplogroup further.
  2. A RecLOH event has been discovered for men in this Lineage at Marker 385b suggesting that this mutation was passed down from their shared common ancestor Thomas Dunbar.
  3. Paper trails show these three are cousins who share a common ancestor.  D-62 has a mutation at DYS 464a which shows the internal branching within the William Dunbar family line.
  4. The next step would be to extend all markers out to 67 to rule out any further mutations.

Lineage 5 – I2b1

1. More research is needed to determine their shared common ancestor. They do not have shared mutations which lends to the theory that they descend from different branches.

Lineage 6 – R1b1b2

1. More research is needed to discover their shared common ancestor. D-105 has 3 mutations which D-101 hasn’t which suggests their shared common ancestor could be further back then their paper trails.  We won’t know until more men test into this Lineage. Some of their matches are with men with the Barr surname.

Lineage 7 – E1b1b1

1. D-94, D-134, & D139 all share a 18th century paper trailed ancestor.  It is recommended that D-94 extend his markers to 67 to discover if he has acquired any new mutations. D-134 & D-139 have differing mutations indicating the internal branching w/I this family line. It is highly recommended one of these men Deep Clade Test to discover and refine Lineage 7’s haplogroup to a more specific world location.

Unassigned Haplogroups E, I, J, Q, & R1b1

  1. Further patience will be necessary for members of the "Unassigned" Haplogroups until matches are found and can be analyzed.
  2. D-17 needs to upgrade to minimum 37 markers to verify a possible relationship with either D-40 or D-66.  If confirmed, a new Lineage can be formed.
  3. D-31 & D-111 need to upgrade to minimum 37 markers to verify relationship with Lineage 2.
  4. D-32 markers exhibit the so-called "Niall of the Nine Hostages” haplotype quite common in Northwest Ireland.
  5. D-55 needs to upgrade to minimum 37 markers to verify a possible relationship with Lineage 2 or 3.
  6. ALL should be SNP tested to define and clarify their Haplogroup designations.  Log on to your FTDNA Personal Account page, click the Haplogroup link, paragraph titled Haplogroup test is a link “Order”.
  7. ALL should triangulate and verify the DNA back to your Earliest Known Ancestor.   You must ask a person from another branch which is different from yours.

What are Haplogroups?
“Haplogroups are genetic population groups that identify where in the Y-DNA or mtDNA tree of humanity you fit in. Haplogroups are what allow us to identify how large groups of people migrated from Africa around 60,000 years ago to different parts of the world.  All members of a haplogroup descend from a common distant ancestor.”  FTDNA

Y-Haplogroups represented in the Dunbar DNA Project to date with descriptions by FTDNA:

E1a – Is found most often in West Africa, and today it is especially common in the region of Mali.

E1b1b1 (E-M35) probably all first appeared in East Africa between 20,000 and 47,500 years ago. There are different techniques available for such estimates, and a considerable range of possibilities, but the most recent estimates of are around 24,000 years ago

I1 The I1 lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Viking / Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and Eastern Europe, where it is found at low frequencies.

I2a The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations.

I2b1 The I2b lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Viking / Scandinavian populations in Northwest Europe and extends at low frequencies into Central and Eastern Europe.

J2 This lineage originated in the northern portion of the Fertile Crescent where it later spread throughout central Asia, the Mediterranean, and south into India. As with other populations with Mediterranean ancestry this lineage is found within Jewish populations.

Q1 The Q1 lineage links Asia and the Americas. This lineage is found in North and Central Asian populations as well as Native Americans. Among European populations, haplogroup Q is found most frequently in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. This lineage is believed to have originated in Central Asia and migrated through the Altai / Baikal region of northern Eurasia into the Americas.

R1a1 - R1a and R1a1a are believed to have originated somewhere within Eurasia, most likely in the area from Eastern Europe to South Asia. The most recent studies indicate that South Asia is a more likely region of origin than Europe.

R1b1 Haplogroup R1b is the most common haplogroup in European populations. It is believed to have expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum 10-12 thousand years ago.

R1b1b2a1b5b M222+ Haplogroup R1b is the most common haplogroup in European populations. It is believed to have expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum 10-12 thousand years ago. Its branch R1b1b2e is primarily found in Northern Ireland, and contains the Niall Modal Haplotype.

R1b1b2a1b3 SRY2627 – Presently, is commonly found in Iberia (especially the north and west i.e. the Basque Country and Catalunya), south western France and up the Atlantic coast to England, Wales, Ireland and Scotland.

R1b1b2a1a1e – New SNP L257 research is ongoing until more data is collected. In general, R1b1b2a1a1e is primarily is called Frisian and found in Norway/Holland/Netherlands/Central Germany.

Information about mtDNA and the different Haplogroups represented on the Results page.

Specific mitochondrial haplogroups are typically found in different regions of the world, and this is due to unique population histories. In the process of spreading around the world, many populations—with their special mitochondrial haplogroups—became isolated, and specific haplogroups concentrated in geographic regions. Today, we have identified certain haplogroups that originated in Africa, Europe, Asia, the islands of the Pacific, the Americas, and even particular ethnic groups. Of course, haplogroups that are specific to one region are sometimes found in another, but this is due to recent migration.

B2 is one of five haplogroups found in the indigenous peoples of the Americas, the others being A, C, D, and X.

C Haplogroup C is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 40,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the role of individuals bearing haplogroup C.

H Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that originated outside of Europe before the last glacial maximum (LGM). It first expanded in the northern Near East and southern Caucasus between 33,000 and 26,000 years ago, and later migrations from Iberia suggest it reached Europe before the LGM. It has also spread to Siberia and Inner Asia. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H.

HV Mitochondrial haplogroup HV is a primarily European haplogroup that underwent an expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. It is more prevalent in Western Europe than in Eastern Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup HV appear in the Near East as a result of more recent migration. One of the dominant mitochondrial haplogroups in Europe, haplogroup HV pre-dates the occurrence of farming in Europe. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

J* The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J*—the root lineage of haplogroup J—is found distributed throughout Europe, but at a relatively low frequency. Haplogroup J is generally considered one of the prominent lineages that was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago.

J1b1 Descends from a woman who lived in the Near East or Caucasus. Further mutations took place in the J ine which can be identified as J1a1 which is estimated to be approximately 27,000 year ago.

U2e The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U2 is found distributed in the Near East and Europe, though it is maintained a rather low frequency throughout. This sparse, yet widespread, dissemination, when combined with the presence of an allied haplogroup found in India, suggests that haplogroup U2 is very old, and was likely an early lineage of the super-haplogroup U, which arose greater than 50,000 years ago.


U5 The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U5 may have been come in contact with Neanderthals living in Europe at the time.

V Haplogroup V is believed to have originated around the Western Mediterranean region, approx. 13,600 years before present – possibly on Iberia. It derives from the Haplogroup HV0a.

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