A friend of mine, Italian of course, has just received the FGS of his son. I don’t understand why FTDNA has classified him U5a. Having the mutations G16526A and G9548A, he is clearly U5a2b.
Malyarchuk et alii (The Peopling of Europe from the Mitochondrial Haplogroup U5 Perspective, PloS ONE, April 2010, Volume 5) has written an interesting paper on this Western/Mediterranean European haplogroup and its peopling of Eastern Europe. He gives to U5a2b an age of 8.3ky and to its subclades in Central and Eastern Europe an age of 7.2ky, estimating a synonymous mutations rate of "one mutation per every 7884 years", having a sample found in Eastern Europe only 1 synonymous mutation (A9531G).
But our Italian sample gets a synonymous mutation in 12864C, plus mutations in 10957G and 15355A (they seem synonymous too if I am not wrong). Beyond this a mutation in 16230G and an heteroplasmy in 150Y.
Perhaps Mr. Malyarchuk et alii must do again their calculations and I shall put also this haplogroup amongst those expanding from the Italian Refugium, and, as it seems, not only to Western Europe, but to Eastern Europe too.