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Author Topic: Coming Very Soon: Ötzi's Y Haplogroup (and his entire genome!)  (Read 16190 times)
Heber
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« Reply #125 on: May 03, 2012, 06:57:47 AM »


Interesting report from the BBC. They have found red blood cells on Oetzi, the oldest known red blood cells ever discovered. It presents new evidence about how he died and his last hours.

"Researchers studying Oetzi, a 5,300-year-old body found frozen in the Italian Alps in 1991, have found red blood cells around his wounds.

Blood cells tend to degrade quickly, and earlier scans for blood within Oetzi's body turned up nothing.

Now a study in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface shows that Oetzi's remarkable preservation extends even to the blood he shed shortly before dying.

The find represents by far the oldest red blood cells ever observed.

It is just the latest chapter in what could be described as the world's oldest murder mystery.

Since Oetzi was first found by hikers with an arrow buried in his back, experts have determined that he died from his wounds and what his last meal was.

There has been extensive debate as to whether he fell where he died or was buried there by others.

In February, Albert Zink and colleagues at the Eurac Institute for Mummies and the Iceman in Bolzano, Italy published Oetzi's full genome."


That, Prof Zink explained, seems to solve one of the elements of the murder mystery.

"Because fibrin is present in fresh wounds and then degrades, the theory that Oetzi died some days after he had been injured by the arrow, as had once been mooted, can no longer be upheld," he said.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17909396


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Arwunbee
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« Reply #126 on: May 03, 2012, 08:27:20 AM »

Apparently they found in his blood that his cholesterol was very high and thus his last meal was theorised to be a Big Mac, but scientists at the KFC Sanders Institute of Junkfood (SIOJ) are disputing this now due to the recently found presence of all 11 herbs and spices in his pouch.  Furthermore, one of KFC's anthrapologists believes this to be the first case of corporate espionage in world history.
« Last Edit: May 03, 2012, 08:30:12 AM by Arwunbee » Logged

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Heber
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« Reply #127 on: September 05, 2012, 03:43:02 PM »

11% of the men in the Otzal Alps share the same G2A Halpogroup of Otzi.

"Tracking the Iceman’s scent by high resolution mapping of Y haplogroup G in Tyrol (Austria)
Berger B1, Niederstätter H1, Erhart D1, Gassner C2,3, Schennach H3, Parson W1,*
1Institute of Legal Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria
2Blood Transfusion Service Zürich, SRC, Schlieren, Switzerland
3Central Institute for Blood Transfusion & Immunological Department, Innsbruck, Austria
The analysis of human Y chromosome variation is a well established tool for investigating human history on the basis of present-day genetic diversity. Most recently, progress in ancient DNA analysis makes direct comparisons with genetic data from archeological remains increasingly possible. For example, there is evidence from ancient genetic data for a high frequency of Y chromosomal haplogroup G (Hg) in prehistoric populations of Central Europe, whilst nowadays the density distribution of these Y chromosomes reaches its peak in the Caucasus. The most recent and most prominent example for these findings is the “Tyrolean Iceman”. The 5,300 years old mummy was found in the Ötztal Alps near the border between Italy and Tyrol (Austria). Y chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP) analysis assigned the Iceman to a sub-branch of G2a, which is defined by the SNP L91. This particular Hg is very rare in present-day populations of Europe (< 1%).
In this work we set out to test for elevated levels of G2a and in particular of G-L91 in present-day paternal lineages in the remote mountain regions near to the site where the Iceman was found. A population sample comprising 3,713 specimens from men living in Tyrol was genotyped for 19 Y-SNPs by single-nucleotide primer extension. This set included the G2a defining marker P15. Preliminary results indicated that app. 11% of the Y chromosomes belonged to G2a. The spatial distribution of this Hg featured unexpectedly high densities within or near the Ötztal Alps. L91 and additional SNPs such as L32, L487, and L645 are increasing the resolution within G2a and will refine this pattern."

http://dna2012.gerichtsmedizin.at/files/DNA_in_Forensics_2012.pdf
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Heber
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« Reply #128 on: September 05, 2012, 04:44:36 PM »

In contrast to the Y haplogroup, the mtDNA haplogroup of Otzi, K1, appears to have died out in the region.

"Genetic relationship between modern populations and the Neolithic Tyrolean Iceman
Coia V1,*, Cipollini G1, Maixner F1, Brisighelli F2,3, Capelli C4, Battaggia C3, Destro Bisol G3,5, Zink A1
1European Academy of Bolzano (EURAC-research), Institute for Mummies and the Iceman, Bolzano, Italy 2Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Unidade de Xenética, Facultade de Medicina, Instituto de Ciencias Forenses, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
3Dipartimento Biologia Ambientale, Università La Sapienza, Roma, Italy
4Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom 5Istituto Italiano di Antropologia, Roma, Italy
After its discovery in the Italian part of the Ötztal Alps in early 90s, numerous archaeological, biochemical and genetic studies have been concerned with the mummified body of the Tyrolean Iceman, an individual who lived in the south ridge of the Alpine area during the Copper Age (about 5,300 y.a). However, some important questions remain unresolved. The key aspect regards the genetic relationships between the Iceman and modern populations. In fact, recent study on the complete genome of the mitochondrial DNA showed that the Iceman belonged to a branch of haplogroup K1 (named K1f or K1Ö defined by two specific mutations, the 3513T and 8137T), that has not yet been found in extant populations. These results suggests that this lineage could be now extinct or very rare. However, this study was limited by the scarcity of data from modern European populations, especially from the Alpine region of interest. In the framework of the ongoing project “Reconstruction of the peopling of Eastern Alps by analyzing the genetic variability of modern populations and comparison with ancient DNA data” we are analyzing the complete mtdna genome of K lineages (at least 50) from different areas of oriental alps and collecting all complete K mtdna data available from literature. The genetic data will be analyzed in order to get an updated phylogenetic tree of haplogroup K in Europe and to test the presence of lineage related to the Iceman.
(The project is supported by the “Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano – Alto Adige, Ripartizione Diritto allo studio, università e ricerca scientifica, Postdoctoral Research Fellow to V. C)".
« Last Edit: September 05, 2012, 05:09:33 PM by Heber » Logged

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OConnor
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« Reply #129 on: November 13, 2012, 01:56:42 PM »

Otzi is back in the news.

Iceman was Central Europe native, new research finds.

Otzi the Iceman, an astonishingly well-preserved Neolithic mummy found in the Italian Alps in 1991, was a native of Central Europe, not a first-generation émigré from Sardinia, new research shows. And genetically, he looked a lot like other Stone Age farmers throughout Europe.

The new findings, reported Thursday here at the American Society of Human Genetics conference, support the theory that farmers, and not just the technology of farming, spread during prehistoric times from the Middle East all the way to Finland.

"The idea is that the spread of farming and agriculture, right now we have good evidence that it was also associated with a movement of people and not only technology," said study co-author Martin Sikora, a geneticist at Stanford University.

In what may be the world's oldest cold case, Otzi was pierced by an arrow and bled to death on a glacier in the Alps between Austria and Italy more than 5,000 years ago. [ Album: A New Face for Otzi the Iceman ]

Scientists sequenced Otzi's genome earlier this year, yielding a surprising result: The Iceman was more closely related to present-day Sardinians than he was to present-day Central Europeans.

But the researchers sequenced only part of the genome, and the results didn't resolve an underlying question: Did most of the Neolithic people in Central Europe have genetic profiles more characteristic of Sardinia, or had Otzi's family recently emigrated from Southern Europe?

"Maybe Otzi was just a tourist, maybe his parents were Sardinian and he decided to move to the Alps," Sikora said.

That would have required Otzi's family to travel hundreds of miles, an unlikely prospect, Sikora said.

"Five thousand years ago, it's not really expected that our populations were so mobile," Sikora told LiveScience.

To answer that question, Sikora's team sequenced Otzi's entire genome and compared it with those from hundreds of modern-day Europeans, as well as the genomes of a Stone Age hunter-gatherer found in Sweden, a farmer from Sweden, a 7,000-year-old hunter-gatherer iceman found in Iberia and an Iron Age man found in Bulgaria.

The team confirmed that, of modern people, Sardinians are Otzi's closest relatives. But among the prehistoric quartet, Otzi most closely resembled the farmers found in Bulgaria and Sweden, while the Swedish and Iberian hunter-gatherers looked more like present-day Northern Europeans.
 
 The findings support the notion that people migrating from the Middle East all the way to Northern Europe brought agriculture with them and mixed with the native hunter gatherers, enabling the population to explode, Sikora said.

While the traces of these ancient migrations are largely lost in most of Europe, Sardinian islanders remained more isolated and therefore retain larger genetic traces of those first Neolithic farmers, Sikora said.

The findings add to a growing body of evidence showing that farming played a major role in shaping the people of Europe, said Chris Gignoux, a geneticist at the University of California San Francisco, who was not involved in the study.

"I think it's really intriguing," Gignoux said. "The more that people are sequencing these ancient genomes from Europe, that we're really starting to see the impact of farmers moving into Europe."

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/49760676/ns/technology_and_science-science/#.UJ1WzsX1F8E
« Last Edit: November 13, 2012, 01:57:42 PM by OConnor » Logged

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rms2
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« Reply #130 on: November 14, 2012, 04:59:50 AM »

Quote
. . . Chris Gignoux, a geneticist at the University of California San Francisco . . .

Chris Gignoux was one of our first French L21+ guys, back when he worked for 23andMe. :-)
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Heber
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« Reply #131 on: November 21, 2012, 03:48:18 AM »

Here is a good article about Otzi  from Roberta.

http://dna-explained.com/2012/11/21/otzi-was-a-brown-eyed-left-handed-farmer/



« Last Edit: November 21, 2012, 04:55:53 AM by Heber » Logged

Heber


 
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