Dienekes Pontikos on his blog (“Dienekes’ Anthropology Blog”) has genially broken in pieces the last paper in argument (“The History of African Gene Flow into Southern Europeans, Levantines, and Jews” by P. Moorjani et al. (2011), Plos Genet 7 (4)), which is so well funded that is in free access and everyone can read it. But I don’t desire to speak of the paper, which is fighting for a rearguard battle that I wonder there is still someone who desires to fight.
The paper and what goes around it is important for another thing.
Says Dienekes: “I keep all options on the table. If you notice, Romania has about 1/4 "Sardinian", but when did it get it? Some of it might be related to movements from Italy. Also, there is a weak "Sardinian" component in South Asia. Again, when it did get there? It could be early, or it could be Greek. So, I'm not that comfortable at excluding the Balkans as a potential source just yet, although I find a West Asian source more economical”.
Dienekes has reached the deepest knowledge about autosomal researches and we all who have contributed are very glad to have done it.
Of course I disagree with Dienekes about his conclusions. The presence of Sardinian SNPs largely in Romania and even in South Asia is for me the definite demonstration of the expansion from the Italian Refugium after the Younger Dryas and I suppose of hg. R1b1b2 and its subclades. Sardinia retains the most ancient hgs of R1b: R1b/V88-, R1b1-M18. I think that from R1b1b2 developed in Italy came the subclades that peopled Europe and, before, the Balkans and South-West Asia.