At this time (February 2011), there are eleven LEALs who have done a Y-DNA test.
Their Oldest Known Paternal Ancestors (“OKPA”) are:
1. LEAL, Cruz, born in the early 19th century in Ubaque in Colombia. (LEAL branch in Colombia and the Netherlands; Haplogroup J2a4b);
2. LEAL, Avelardo born round about 1870 in Mexico (LEAL branch in Mexico; Haplogroup G);
3. LEAL, Jose, born in 1770 from Los Ramones in Mexico (LEAL branch in Mexico; Haplogroup R1b1b2);
4. LEAL, Manuel born on 8 January 1868 on the Isle of Pico in the Azores, Portugal (LEAL branch in the USA and Portugal; Haplogroup unknown);
5. LEAL, João Soares born in 1845 in Sao Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil (*) (LEAL branch in Brazil; Haplogroup unknown);
6. LEAL, Nepomuceno born round about 1860 in Ortega, Colombia (LEAL branch in Colombia; Haplogroup R1b);
7. LEAL, João born round about 1902 in Portugal (LEAL branch in Brazil and Portugal; Haplogroup I);
8. LEAL, Joaquim born round about 1917 in Penafiel, Portugal (LEAL branch in Portugal; Haplogroup J2);
9. LEAL CARVALLO, Jose Manuel, born unknown, probably in Chile (LEAL branch in Chile; Haplogroup unknown);
10. LEAL, Jose Maria, born approximately 1763 in Santa Anita, Jalisco in Mexico (LEAL branch in Mexico; Haplogroup unknown); and
11. LEAL, Silveira, born in the 2nd half of the 18th century on the Island of Faial in the Azores, Portugal (LEAL branch the USA and Portugal; Haplogroup R1b1b2).
(*) It is unclear whether the paternal surname of this oldest known paternal ancestor is indeed LEAL (LEAL may possibly be the maternal surname).
Analysis & conclusion
I have compared 12 markers of the latest individual who did the test (descendant of OKPA #11) with the other results in order to find out whether he is related to any of the other LEALs who have done the test. My conclusion is that he may be!
The descendant of OKPA#11 has a genetic distance of 1 with the descendant of OKPA#3, comparing the first 12 markers that they have both tested. Comparing the 25 markers that both individuals have tested, the genetic distance is 11. Although I am not an expert on the subject, I believe it is likely that the two individuals share a common paternal ancestor. I expect that this ancestor will have lived some hundreds of years ago, given the genetic distance of 11 when comparing the 25 markers that they have both tested.
This is the first positive test result that I have found since I started comparing the Y-DNA test results for people with the paternal surname Leal some years ago!
The genetic distances of the descendant of OKPA #11 and the other tested LEALs vary from 1 to 20 on the 12 markers jointly tested. The average genetic distance of the descendant of OKPA#11 and the other LEALs is about 11. Given the genetic distance between the descendant of OKPA#11 and the other tested LEALs (with the exception of the descendant of OKPA#3), it is unlikely that they share a common paternal ancestor.
The oldest known paternal ancestors of OKPA#3 and OKPA#11 are from los Ramones (Nuevo Leon) in Mexico (born 1770) and the Island of Faial (the Azores) in Portugal (born in 2nd half of the 18th century) respectively. Both individuals belong to European male Haplogroup R1b. Given these facts, it seems likely that their common paternal ancestor lived in the Azores or possibly Portugal and / or Spain. From there, his descendants would then have spread out to the Azores and the New World following its discovery by inhabitants of the Old World in 1492. Fascinating how this works!