At this time (May 2010), there are ten LEALs who have done a Y-DNA test.
Their Oldest Known Paternal Ancestors (“OKPA”) are:
1. LEAL, Cruz, born in the early 19th century in Ubaque in Colombia. (LEAL branch in Colombia and the Netherlands; Haplogroup J2a4b);
2. LEAL, Avelardo born round about 1870 in Mexico (LEAL branch in Mexico; Haplogroup G);
3. LEAL, Jose, born in 1770 from Los Ramones in Mexico (LEAL branch in Mexico; Haplogroup R1b);
4. LEAL, Manuel born on 8 January 1868 on the Isle of Pico in the Azores, Portugal (LEAL branch in the USA and Portugal; Haplogroup unknown);
5. LEAL, João Soares born in 1845 in Sao Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil (*) (LEAL branch in Brazil; Haplogroup unknown);
6. LEAL, Nepomuceno born round about 1860 in Ortega, Colombia (LEAL branch in Colombia; Haplogroup R1b);
7. LEAL, João born round about 1902 in Portugal (LEAL branch in Brazil and Portugal; Haplogroup I);
8. LEAL, Joaquim born round about 1917 in Penafiel, Portugal (LEAL branch in Portugal; Haplogroup J2);
9. LEAL CARVALLO, Jose Manuel, born unknown, probably in Chile (LEAL branch in Chile; Haplogroup unknown);
10. LEAL, Jose Maria, born approximately 1763 in Santa Anita, Jalisco in Mexico (LEAL branch in Mexico; Haplogroup unknown).
(*) It is unclear whether the paternal surname of this oldest known paternal ancestor is indeed LEAL (LEAL may possibly be the maternal surname).
Analysis & conclusion
I have compared 12 markers of the latest individual who did the test (descendant of OKPA #10) with the other results in order to find out whether he is related to any of the other LEALs who did the test. My conclusion is that he is not.
The genetic distances of the descendant of OKPA #10 and the other tested LEALs vary from 13 to 25 on the 12 markers jointly tested. Although I am not an expert on the subject, I believe it is safe to say that given the genetic distances, the descendant of OKPA #10 is not related to any of the other tested LEALs.
Based on previous analyses I had already reached the conclusion that the descendants of OKPA #1 up to and including OKPA #9 are not related to one another either (see my previous messages on this forum).
In other words, there are at least ten unrelated LEAL branches world wide and three unrelated LEAL branches in Mexico.