The Annals of Ulster
“The foreigners & Saxons”
The first prey by the Saxons from Ireland or in Ireland.
Nath Í son of Fiachra of Mag Táil, son of Eochu Mugmedón was killed at the Alps mountain, or died after having been struck by a thunderbolt when he invaded its confines; and he reigned in Ireland for 23 years.
The first battle of Ard Corann, won by the Laigin.
The Angles came to England.
The second prey of the Saxons from Ireland was carried off this year, as Maucteus (Mochta) says. Thus I have found in the Book of Cuanu.
In this year the ‘sea-wanderer’ was caught.
Death of Domnall son of Aed, king of Ireland, at the end of January. Afterwards Domnall Brec was slain at the end of the year, in December, in the battle of Srath Caruin, by Hoan, king of the Britons. He reigned 15 years.
Repose of Aedán, bishop of the Saxons, and the killing of two sons of Blathmac son of Aed Sláine, i.e. Dúnchad and Conall.
The battle of Penda, king of the Saxons; Oswy was victor.
The Saxons lay waste Mag Breg, and many churches, in the month of June.
The battle of Dún Nechtain was fought on Saturday, May 20th, and Egfrid son of Oswy, king of the Saxons, who had completed the 15th year of his reign, was slain therein with a great body of his soldiers; and Tula ( ?) burned Aman (?) of Dún Ollaig.
Fínnechta, king of Temair, and Bresal his son, were killed in Grellach Dollaig by Aed son of Dlúthach son of Ailill son of Aed Sláine, and by Congalach son of Conaing son of Congal son of Aed Sláine.
Congalach son of Conaing son of Congal son of Aed Sláine dies.
A battle between the Saxons and the Picts, in which fell Bernith's son, called Brectrid.
A murrain of cattle in the land of the Saxons.
Írgalach grandson of Conaing was killed by Britons in Inis Mac Nesáin.
The battle of Cenannas, in which fell Tuathal grandson of Faelchú and Cellach Diathraibh and Gormgal son of Aed son of Dlúthach and Amalgaid grandson of Conaing and his brother Fergal. Conall Grant was victor, and this Conall Grant, grandson of Cernach, was killed two months after the battle by Fergal, son of Mael Dúin.
Death of Indrechtach grandson of Conaing, king of Ciannachta.
Murchad son of Diarmait, king of Laigin and the foreigners, died and was buried in Áth Cliath.
Diarmait son of Mael na mBó, king of Laigin and the foreigners, fell in battle by Conchobor ua Mael Sechlainn, king of Temair, with a slaughter of the foreigners and the Laigin, i.e. on Tuesday the seventh of the Ides 7th of February.
The defeat of Crinach was inflicted on Mael Sechlainn by the Laigin and the foreigners, and in it fell Mael Ciarán ua Cadusaigh, king of Brega, and many others.
An army was led by Muirchertach ua Briain to Áth Cliath, and he expelled Gofraidh Méranach from the kingship of the foreigners, and killed Domnall ua Mael Sechlainn, king of Temair.
Gofraidh Meranach, king of the foreigners, died.
Three of the ships of the foreigners of the Isles were plundered by the Maid and their crews were killed, a hundred and twenty or a little more.
Inis Cathaig was plundered by the foreigners.
An army was brought by Muirchertach ua Briain and Leth Moga, both laity and clergy, to Grenóc. Domnall grandson of Lochlainn, however, with the nobles of the north of Ireland, went to Cluain Caín of the Fir Rois, and they were confronting one another for a month until Cellach, successor of Patrick, with the Staff of Jesus, made a year's peace between them.
An army was brought by Tairdelbach ua Conchobuir and the province of Connacht into Desmumu and they plundered from Mag Feimin to Tráigh Lí, both laity and churches, i.e. seventy churches or a little more.
A plundering army was brought by Tairdelbach ua Conchobuir into Desmumu also and he plundered the termon of Lis Mór and brought away a countless spoil of cattle, and left behind dead Muiredach ua Flaithbhertaigh, king of the west of Connacht, and Aed ua hEidhin, king of Uí Fhiachrach.
An army was led by Tairdelbach ua Conchobuir to Loch Silech in Mide, and the son of Murchad, king of the Laigin and the foreigners, came into his house.
A plundering army was brought by Tairdelbach ua Conchobuir into Desmumu, and he plundered Glenn Maghair and brought away a countless spoil of cattle.
The men of Mumu and Laigin turned again on Tairdelbach ua Conchobuir and they forfeited the lives of their hostages, and his son was deposed by the Laigin and the foreigners; for he set another king over them, i.e. Domnall grandson of Faelán.
A battle between the men of Scotland and the men of Moray in which four thousand of the men of Moray fell with their king .i. Aengus son of the daughter of Lulach; a thousand, or a hundred, which is more accurate, of the men of Scotland fell in a counter-attack.
An army was brought by Conchobor ua Briain and the men of Mumu into Laigin and they took their hostages, and thence into Mide, and they plundered Inis Locha Seimdide, and their horsemen and the horsemen of Connacht met, and the horsemen of Connacht were defeated.
A hosting by Muircertach Ua Lochlainn along with very large portion of the Half of Conn to Magh-Fitharta, so that they were a week therein, burning the corn and towns of the Foreigners. The foreigners, however, inflicted defeat upon their horse-host, so that they killed six or seven of them and [the Ultonians] got not their demand on that occasion.
Pillaging of the Foreigners of Ath-cliath by Diarmait Mac Murchadha and great sway was obtained [by him] over them, such as was not obtained before for a long time.
An expedition of the Saxons and of the Foreigners of Ath-cliath [set out] with the son of the Empress, to subjugate the Britons and they were all for the space of half a years attacking them and they availed not. And they returned without peace backwards.
The fleet of Robert FitzStephen came to Ireland in aid of Mac Murchadha.
There came into Ireland Henry ,most puissant king of England and also Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine and Count of Anjou and Lord of many other lands, with 240 ships. (So that that was the first advent of the Saxons into Ireland.) And he came to land at Port-lairgi and received the pledges of Munster. He came after that to Ath-cliath and received the pledges of Leinster and of the Men of Meath and of the Ui-Briuin and Airgialla and Ulidia.
The king of the Saxons went from Ireland on Easter Sunday, after celebration of Mass.
Tigernan Ua Ruairc, king of Breifni and Conmaicni, a man of great power for a long time, was killed by the same Saxons and by Domnall, son of Annadh [Ua Ruairc] of his own clan along with them. He was beheaded also by them and his head and his body were carried ignominiously to Ath-cliath. The head was raised over the door of the fortress,—a sore, miserable sight for the Gaidhil. The body was hung in another place, with its feet upwards.
Flann Ua Gorman, arch-lector of Ard-Macha and of all Ireland, a man learned, observant in divine and human wisdom, after having been a year and twenty learning amongst the Franks and Saxons and twenty years directing the schools of Ireland, died peacefully on the 13th of the Kalends of April [March 20], the Wednesday before Easter, in the 70th year of his age.
The battle of Durlus by Domnall Ua Briain and by Conchobur Maenmhaighi upon the people of the son of the Empress (namely, of the king of the Saxons).
Maghnus Ua Mael-Seachnaill was hanged by the Foreigners.
The Saxons were expelled by Domnall Ua Briain from Limerick, by a leaguer being made against them.
Fabor and Cenannus were wasted by the Foreigners and by the Ui-Briuin.
Niall, son of Mac Lochlainn, was killed by Muinnter-Branain.
Lughmadh was wasted by the Saxons.
A castle of the Foreigners was a-building at Cenannus.
The Saxon Earl died in Ath-cliath of an ulcer he got on his foot, through the miracles of Brigit and Colum-cille and the saints besides, whose churches he destroyed.
The castle of Slane, wherein was Ricard Fleming with his host, wherefrom the Airgialla and Ui-Briuin and Fir-Midhe were being pillaged, was destroyed by Mael-Sechlainn, son of Mac Lochlainn, king of Cenel-Eogain and by the Cenel-Eogain themselves and by the Airgialla; where were killed one hundred or more of the Foreigners, besides women and children and the horses of the castle that were killed, so that no person escaped alive out of the castle. And three castles in Meath were razed on the morrow for fear of the Cenel-Eogain, namely, the castle of Cenannus and the castle of Calatruim and the castle of Daire of Patrick.
Dun-da-lethglas was destroyed by John De Courcy and by the knights that came with him, and a castle was made by them there, wherefrom they twice inflicted defeat upon Ulidia and defeat upon Cenel-Eogain and upon Airgialla; where was killed Conchobur Ua Cairellan (namely, chief of Clann-Diarmata) and Gilla Mac Liac Ua Donngaille, chief of Fir-Droma, and wherein was wounded with arrows Domnall Ua [F]laithbertaigh—and he died of those wounds in the monastery [of Canons Regular] of Paul [and Peter] in Ard-Macha, after partaking of the Body of Christ and after his anointing and wherein were killed many other nobles. Now, Conchobur Ua Cairella n before that (namely, in the Spring) inflicted defeat upon the Cenel-Eogain and upon Ua Maeldoraidh; where a great number of the Cenel-Eogain were killed, around the son of Mac Sherraigh and around many nobles besides.
Milo Cogan with his knights was taken by the son of Ruaidhri Ua Conchobhuir to Ros-Comain to destroy Connacht, for evil towards his father. The Connachtmen, however, immediately burned Tuaim-da-gualann and the churches of the country besides, for evil towards the Foreigners and they inflicted defeat upon the Foreigners and drove them by force out of the country. Moreover, Ruaidhri Ua Conchobuir blinded that son afterwards, in revenge of that expedition.
Aedh Ua Neill ‘The lazy youth’, king of Cenel-Eogain for a time and royal heir of all Ireland, was killed by Mael-Sechlainn, son of Mac Lochlainn and by Ardgal, son of Mac Lochlainn (that is, son to that Mael-Sechlainn). But Ardgal himself was killed by Ua Neill at his being killed there.
A hosting by John De Courcy and by the knights into Dal-Araidhe (and to Dun-da-lethlas), on which they killed Domnall, grandson of Cathusach [Mac Duinnsleibhe Ua Eochadha], king of Dal-Araidhe. Moreover, John went during the same expedition into Ui-Tuirtri and into Fir-Li, until Cu-Midhe Ua Flainn burned Airthir-Maighi before him and they [John's forces] burned Cuil-rathain and many other churches.
It is in that year likewise went John [De Courcy], with his knights, pillaging from Dun to the Plain of Conaille, so that they took many preys therein and were a night in camp in Glenn-righi. Howbeit, Murchadh Ua Cerbaill, king of Airgialla, and Mac Duinnsleibhe [Ua Eochadha], king of Ulidia, with the Ulidians came up with them that night and made an onset upon them. Thereupon defeat was inflicted upon the Foreigners and stark slaughter was put upon them. The same John, notwithstanding, went for preys into Dal-Araidhe and into Ui-Tuirtri. But Cu-Midhe Ua Flainn, king of Ui-Tuirtri and Fir-Li, made an onset upon theme. That battle also went against the Foreigners and slaughter of them was inflicted.
Art Ua Mael-Sechlainn, king of the West of Meath, was killed by direction of the Foreigners. Mael-Sechlainn the Little took the kingship in his stead.
A castle was built by the Foreigners in Cell-fair.
Another castle was destroyed by Mael-Sechlainn and by Conchobur Maenmaighi Ua Conchobair, with a large number of Foreigners therein.
John Lack-land, son of the king of the Saxons, came into Ireland, sixty ships strong, or something more, besides what was before him of Foreigners in Ireland.
Mael-Sechlainn, son of Muircertach Ua Lochlainn, was killed by the Foreigners.
Ugo De Lacy was killed by O'Miadhaigh of Tebtha (that is, the destroyer and the dissolver of the sanctuaries and churches of Ireland—he was killed in reparation to Colum-cille, whilst building a castle namely, in Dermagh). Hugo De Lacy, destroyer [and] dissolver of the church and sanctuaries of Ireland, was killed by Ua Miadhaigh of Breghmuna, by [direction] of the ‘Fox’ Ua Catharnaigh, in reparation to Colum-cille, whilst building a castle in his church, namely, in Durmagh, in the 640th year since the church of Dairmagh was founded.
Druim-cliabh was pillaged by the son of Mael-Sechlainn Ua Ruairc (namely, by Aedh), king of Ui-Briuin and Conmaicni and by the son of Cathal Ua Ruairc and by the Foreigners of Meath along with them. But God wrought a wonderful deed for Colum-cille therein,—that is, the son of Mael-Sechlainn Ua Ruairc (namely, Aedh) was killed (in Conmaicni) before the end of a fortnight thereafter. And the son of Cathal Ua Ruairc, with whom came the hosting into the house of Ua Maeldoraidh, was blinded in reparation to Colum-cille. And six score of the minions of the son of Mael-Sechlainn were killed throughout the length of Conmaicni and Cairpri of Druimcliabh, through miracle of Colum-cille.
The Foreigners of the castle of Magh-Coba and a party of the Ui-Echach of Ulidia came on a foray into Tir-Eogain, until they reached to Leim-mic-Neill and seized cows there. And Domnall Ua Lochlainn went against them with a force of his own party, until he overtook them at Cabhan of the High Trees. They gave them battle and it went against the Foreigners and slaughter of them was inflicted. And a thrust of a foreign spear was given to the king alone, so that he fell there in the conflict that is, Domnall, son of Aedh Ua Lochlainn, king of Ailech and [worthy to be] royal heir of Ireland for form and for sense and for excellence and for prudence. And he was carried that very day to Ard-Macha and buried there honourably.
A hosting by John De-Courcy and by the Foreigners of all Ireland into Connacht, along with Concobur Ua Diarmata. Concobar Maenmhaighi musters the Connachtmen and Domnall Ua Briain, king of Munster, comes with a party of the Men of Munster into the force of the king of Connacht. And they burn some of the churches of the country on their march and some they allowed to escape them . Howbeit, the Foreigners turn back to Ess-dara to come into Tir-Conaill. But, when they heard that the Cenel-Conaill and Ua Maeldoraidh were at Druim-cliabh, they burned Ess-dara completely and turn again into Connacht and come into the Seghdais. And the Connachtmen and Men of Munster deliver an attack upon them and the Foreigners are killed with slaughter and leave the country by force without a whit of triumph.
Domnall, son of Muircertach Ua Lochlainn, was killed by the Foreigners of Dal-Araidhe, amongst themselves.
‘Son of the night’ Ua Mailruanaigh, king of Fir-Manach, was deposed and went to Ua Cerbaill. And a foray of the Foreigners came into the country and Ua Cerbaill and Ua Maelruanaigh encounter them and defeat is inflicted upon Ua Cerbaill and Ua Maelruanaidh is kilied there.
Ard-Macha was pillaged by John De-Courcy and by the Foreigners of Ireland.
The son of the Empress, king of the Saxons, died.
Cu-Midhe Ua Flainn was killed by the Foreigners.
A hosting by John De-Courcy and by the son of Ugo De-Lacy to obtain sway over the Foreigners of Leinster and Munster.
A hosting by Ruaidhri Mac Duinnsleibhe with the Foreigners and with the sons of the kings of Connacht to Cenel-Eogain and the Airthir. Howbeit, the Cenel-Eogain of Telach-oc and the Airthir came to the Plain of Ard-Macha and gave them battle and defeat was inflicted upon Mac Duinnsleibe and stark slaughter of his people took place there, namely, twelve sons of the kings of Connacht.
A hosting by John De-Courcy with the Foreigners of Ulidia to Ess-craibhe, so that they built the castle of Cell-Santain [and] the cantred of Ciannachta was desolated by them. Moreover, in that castle was left Roitsel Fitton [and] a force along with him. Then Roitsel Fitton came on a foray to the Port of Daire, so that he pillaged Cluain-i and Enach and Derc-bruach. But Flaithbertach Ua Maeldoraidh (namely, king of [Cenel-]Conall and Cenel-Eogan) overtook them with a small force of the Cenel Conaill and the Cenel Eogain, so that he inflicted defeat upon them on the strand of the Nuathcongbhail and they were slaughtered to a large number, through miracle of Colum-cille and Cainnech and Brecan [whose churches] they pillaged there.
A hosting by Jobn De-Courcy into Tir-Eogain throughout the churches: namely, Ard-sratha and Rath-both were destroyed by him, until he reached Daire, so that he was there two nights over a week, destroying Inis-Eogain and the country besides. And he would not have gone therefrom for a long time, had not [lit. until] Aedh Ua Neill, [with] a force of five ships, reached Cell in Latharna, so that he burned a part of the town and killed twenty, wanting two, therein. Then the Foreigners of Magh-Line and Dal-Araidhe were, three hundred strong, both in mail and without mail, in front of him and they noticed not, until the Foreigners poured against them, burning the town. Thereupon they gave battle in the centre of the town and it went against the Foreigners. And the Irish gave five defeats to them thenceforward, until they went into their ships and only five of the people of Ua Neill were lost. Thereafter John went away, when he heard that.
The Foreigners of Ulidia made three forays into Tir-Eogain and the third foray they made, they made a camp at Domnach-mor of Magh-Imclair. They sent a large foray abroad. Aedh Ua Neill came to rescue the prey, until himself and the Foreigners met and defeat was inflicted upon the Foreigners and countless slaughter was put upon them and they stole away in the night, until they went past Tuaim.
A hosting by Aedh Ua Neill in aid of Cathal Red-hand with the Men of Magh-Itha and with the Airghialla, until they came to Tech-Baithin of Airtech. They turned there until they came to Es-dara and Cathal Carrach with the nobles of Connacht and William [de] Burgh with the Foreigners of Limerick along with him overtook them. And the North of Ireland was defeated and Ua Eicnigh, arch-king of Airgialla and many others were lost.
A hosting by John De Courcy with the Foreigners and the son of Ugo De Lacy with the Foreigners of Meath in aid of Cathal Red-hand, until they reached Cell-mic-Duach. Then came Cathal Carrach with the Connachtmen along with him and they engaged in battle and the Foreigners of Ulidia and Meath were defeated. The place wherein were the five battalions, there came not therefrom but two battalions of them.
Ruaidhri Mac Duinnsleibhe [Ua Eochada], king of Ulidia and candle of championship of all Ireland, was killed by the Foreigners, to wit, through the miracles of Paul and Peter and Patrick whom he dishonoured.