Zaender writes on eng.molgen:
you know, I have been at Balzi Rossi last week and I would like to know, which other italian refugiums are confirmed and for which timeframe?
Perhaps you know that when I began to interest me about this matter (the first year I wrote on a forum was during the 2007 on Rootsweb, but at the end of that year I was banned), nobody spoke of Italy like a Refugium. The Refugia in Europe were two others or three: the Franco Cantabrian, the Balkan and the Ukrainian ones.
I had done my Y test and was R-ht35 (now I know to be R-L23/L150+) and everybody said I came from Asia Minor, others said from Iberia. I began to ask me if I had come from the Middle, i.e. if I had always lived in Italy, and I began my struggle.
What makes me think to an Italian Refugium are the data which have come out in these last years: R-L51 is clearly Italian in its origin and also some upstream and downstream haplogroups. Also many mtDNA seems to me that, by their distribution, may have had an origin in Italy, and it is strange that nobody spoke of Italy when the first Modern homo in Europe has been found in Italy (about 45,000 years ago) and many others.
If we are hobbyists, what are doing the professional men? For what I know, only U5b3 has been supposed having expanded from Italy.
Certainly Liguria has played an important role in this, and I am thinking above all to the “Grotta delle Arene Candide”, but I think that the whole Italy may have had Refugia, from the Alps to Tuscany to Sardinia to South Italy. I don’t know if you know all my theory, but I think that Italy has been the Refugium of many haplogroups (Y and mt), and certainly, when I examined a few days ago hg. Y G2c, and found that the Italian Cigliano has 3 mutations (at least) in the 22 slowest markers of Anatole Klyosov, has seemed to me of the greatest importance.