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Maliclavelli
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« on: June 24, 2012, 12:35:02 PM »

The Neolithic trace in mitochondrial haplogroup U8

Recent  studies have indicated that clusters belonging to haplogroup K, a major clade from U8, might be related with the  Neolithic expansions.
In order to achieve this goal, a total of 55 U8 samples from the Near East, Europe and North Africa were selected for  complete characterisation of mtDNA.
The  major part of the lineages dating to the Neolithic period seems to have an European origin with exception of haplogroup  K1a4 and K1a3. Considering the pattern of diversity and the geographic  distribution, haplogroup K is most likely to have arisen in the Near East, ~32 ka ago. However, some subclades were  evidently carried to Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We observed significant expansions of haplogroup  K lineages in the Late Glacial period (14-19 ka), reflecting expansions out of refuge areas in southwest and possibly  also southeast Europe.




Origins and evolution of the Etruscans’ DNA

The Etruscan culture is documented in Etruria, Central Italy, from the 7 th to the 1 st century BC. For more than 2,000 years there has been disagreement on the Etruscans’ biological origins, whether local or in Anatolia. Genetic affinities with both Tuscan and Anatolian populations have been reported, but so far all attempts have failed to fit the Etruscans’ and modern populations in the same genealogy. We extracted and typed mitochondrial DNA of 14 individuals buried in two Etruscan necropoleis, analyzing them along with other Etruscan and Medieval samples, and 4,910 contemporary individuals. Comparing ancient and modern diversity with the results of millions of computer simulations, we show that the Etruscans can be considered ancestral, with a high degree of confidence, to the modern inhabitants of two communities, Casentino and Volterra, but not to most contemporary populations dwelling in the former Etruscan homeland. We also estimate that the genetic links between Tuscany and Anatolia date back to at least 5,000 years ago, strongly suggesting that the Etruscan culture developed locally, without a significant contribution of recent Anatolian immigrants.
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Maliclavelli


YDNA: R-S12460


MtDNA: K1a1b1e

alan trowel hands.
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« Reply #1 on: June 24, 2012, 08:25:11 PM »

The Neolithic trace in mitochondrial haplogroup U8

Recent  studies have indicated that clusters belonging to haplogroup K, a major clade from U8, might be related with the  Neolithic expansions.
In order to achieve this goal, a total of 55 U8 samples from the Near East, Europe and North Africa were selected for  complete characterisation of mtDNA.
The  major part of the lineages dating to the Neolithic period seems to have an European origin with exception of haplogroup  K1a4 and K1a3. Considering the pattern of diversity and the geographic  distribution, haplogroup K is most likely to have arisen in the Near East, ~32 ka ago. However, some subclades were  evidently carried to Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We observed significant expansions of haplogroup  K lineages in the Late Glacial period (14-19 ka), reflecting expansions out of refuge areas in southwest and possibly  also southeast Europe.




Origins and evolution of the Etruscans’ DNA

The Etruscan culture is documented in Etruria, Central Italy, from the 7 th to the 1 st century BC. For more than 2,000 years there has been disagreement on the Etruscans’ biological origins, whether local or in Anatolia. Genetic affinities with both Tuscan and Anatolian populations have been reported, but so far all attempts have failed to fit the Etruscans’ and modern populations in the same genealogy. We extracted and typed mitochondrial DNA of 14 individuals buried in two Etruscan necropoleis, analyzing them along with other Etruscan and Medieval samples, and 4,910 contemporary individuals. Comparing ancient and modern diversity with the results of millions of computer simulations, we show that the Etruscans can be considered ancestral, with a high degree of confidence, to the modern inhabitants of two communities, Casentino and Volterra, but not to most contemporary populations dwelling in the former Etruscan homeland. We also estimate that the genetic links between Tuscany and Anatolia date back to at least 5,000 years ago, strongly suggesting that the Etruscan culture developed locally, without a significant contribution of recent Anatolian immigrants.


:0)  I thought of you the minute I read these.  However, 5000 years 'at least' is a very open term and how 'local' it is depends on how you look upon 5000 years.  Its a long time but its not much longer than bell beakers etc.  What was going on in Tuscany before the bell beakers, say 4000-3000BC?
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Maliclavelli
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« Reply #2 on: June 25, 2012, 12:27:32 AM »

:0)  I thought of you the minute I read these.  However, 5000 years 'at least' is a very open term and how 'local' it is depends on how you look upon 5000 years.  Its a long time but its not much longer than bell beakers etc.  What was going on in Tuscany before the bell beakers, say 4000-3000BC?
Of course I should read the paper for saying something more careful. The papers that have been published so far, with data , with something objective, like that of Brisighelli and others, I have quietly broken in pieces and you can read my postings of these last years.
The same Babujani (the “Farfugliani” of my polemics), one of the Cavalli Sforza (my “Cavallo Sforzesco”) group, has said lastly that the link between Tuscans and Anatolians comes back to more than 13,000 years ago.
That one of the ancient agriculturalist’s society in Tuscany is at Pienza (the town of the pope Pius II) what does mean? Pienza isn’t on the shore. How did agriculturalists arrive there?
If I had the means, or if I counted something at FTDNA and could test Mangino (the Tuscan Mancini), who is probably the most ancient R-M269 found so far all over the world, I could perhaps answer your question. Anyway be sure: R1b is in Tuscany long before 5000YBP.

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Maliclavelli


YDNA: R-S12460


MtDNA: K1a1b1e

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