Earlier Thesis published by the same author:Europe during the third millennium BC and Bell Beaker Culture phenomenon: Peopling history through dental non-metric traits study
The Iberian Peninsula is a significant region for understanding the Bell Beaker phenomenon. The Bell Beaker developed during the first half of the third millennium BC, during the recent phase of the Chalcolithic and coexisted with it until the emergence of the Early Bronze age. Archaeological data suggest that the emergence of the Bell Beaker was associated with societal transformations at the end of the Neolithic by the exchange of socially valuable goods. From an anthropological point of view, no element suggest a renewal or displacement of populations at the origins of the Bell Beaker, however, studies have not specifically addressed this issue and concern primarily the effects of environment on individuals. The sample here consists of around 180 individuals and 14 sites from Northern Spain. The samples are attributed to the Final Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Bell Beaker.
The involvement of local populations in the emergence of the Bell Beaker varies according to region (Fig.3). It is only in northern Spain and Bohemia that strict links between the Bell Beaker occupation and local occupations exist (Fig.4 and 5).
For the other three regions, external population influences played a role in the origin of the Bell Beaker occupation, but their contribution also varies. Complete population renewal—or at least a highly significant exogenous impact – is unambiguous for southern France and Hungary. In effect, Bell Beaker populations are clearly distinguished from local populations in these two regions (Fig.6 and 7)
As for Switzerland, however, shows a local regional population disturbed by partial population renewal or the integration of exogenous individuals(Fig.8). Such a situation in the Swiss region seems to have already been present, although less intensively, during the Neolithic.
[…]Bell Beaker through Europe:
Dental morphology has demonstrated two population spheres present in the territory studies (Fig.10). The entities are clearly distinct: we thus have the western Bell Beakers and the eastern Bell Beakers, which we respectively term Bell Beakers and Beakers. The western Bell Beakers are quite similar and the Swiss populations can be strongly linked to their morphology. They form a highly uniform group. The eastern Bell Beakers show a certain cohesion that seems however to have been less isolated. A discussion on population dynamics
Based on these results, it is possible to propose a diffusion model for the Bell Beaker phenomenon. The emergence of the Bell Beaker culture in the western sphere resulted from the displacement of individuals from the Iberian Peninsula into Europe. The biological impact was recorded to at least Switzerland, and possibly also to Hungary. Thus, the Bell Beakers small groups of individuals equipped with their material culture know—how—formed the basis for Bell Beaker diffusion in this region of the phenomenon. The situation in the eastern sphere is more complex. Dental data suggest evolution within a single society. Nevertheless, women—Corded Ware and Bell Beaker—were differentiated from the local populations, probably resulting from societies practicing exogamy. Thus, to understand the modalities for the establishment of the Bell Beaker phenomenon we must dissociate the diffusion of western elements from the exogamic diffusion of women in the eastern domain into two points in time (Fig.11 and 12). On the basis of currently available radiocarbon dates suggesting a southwest—northeast gradient for the expansion of the Bell Beaker, we propose the following:Phase 1:
Migration of groups of Bell Beaker individuals from the Iberian Peninsula toward the east, while the eastern domain is still occupied by the Corded Ware culture.Phase 2:
Part of the Corded Ware on the edge of the phenomenon was individualized and adopted, by borrowing, some of the western Bell Beaker traditions. Diffusion of this new society—the Beakers—continued toward the east. At the same time, certain eastern elements were diffused toward the west. Figure-3: http://i1133.photobucket.com/albums/m582/jeanlohizun/Desiderietal2008Figure-3.jpgFigure 11&12: http://img51.imageshack.us/img51/5666/bbeaker.png