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Author Topic: Bell Beaker link to R1b confirmed by Ancient DNA  (Read 36670 times)
ironroad41
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« Reply #75 on: May 04, 2012, 10:38:24 AM »

@ A.D.

You have a lot more confidence than I have in folk memory! :) It seldom seems to get passed on for more than three or four generations.

I hate to add to this excellent thread with a controversial subject like the Druids, but here we go.  I believe the Druid culture lasted almost 3K years at least.  From probably before Stonehenge to Anglesby Island and subsequently.

From what little is known, it was an oral culture re: religion/history?  If it took twenty years to get through the university, then there must have been a lot passed on, including farming information which would be linked to some of the primary holidays?
(solstices and equinoxes).
« Last Edit: May 04, 2012, 11:38:17 AM by ironroad41 » Logged
alan trowel hands.
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« Reply #76 on: May 04, 2012, 10:39:25 AM »

Here is Coon on Bell Beakers

While the earliest Metal Age culture was being carried westward through the Mediterranean by sea, other agencies conveyed it overland into central Europe. As before, the main highroad was the Danube Valley, but this time the center of earliest diffusion was not Bohemia, but Hungary. A series of crania from Bodrogkeresztür in that country56 are uniformly dolichocephalic, with the highest individual cranial index, out of more than fifty examples, only 76. This is too low for Danubians of the usual Neolithic type, and one suspects a movement from the northeast of peoples of Corded origin. The common presence of copper battle-axes, red ochre, tumulus burials, and other south Russian cultural traits in Copper Age sites in Hungary57 would tend to confirm this deduction. In the west Corded people brought the first metal to Switzerland, and in this case crania of definitely Corded type are involved.sup>58

The inhabitants of Yugoslavia during the Copper Age were, like those of Hungary, also uniformly dolichocephalic.59 Unfortunately, here also we have no further information of racial significance. As one approaches the mouth of the Danube, however, this dolichocephalic uniformity disappears. Four skulls from Russe in Bulgaria, include one male of Corded type, a mesocephalic male, and two brachycephalic females.60

From this evidence, such as it is, we may deduce that the people who brought copper into the Danube Valley at the close of the Neolithic period came from two centers, southern Russia and the Caucasus, and Anatolia, by way of Troy. The chief carriers were the Corded people or some others equally dolichocephalic, while brachycephals from Asia Minor were of little importance from the racial standpoint.

While Copper Age civilization was thus spreading westward along the Danube and the lands to the north, a countermovement in the form of the Bell Beaker invasion travelled eastward from the Rhine to the Danube, and as far as Poland and Hungary. The remains of these Bell Beaker people occupy single graves or groups of graves, rather than whole cemeteries; they were apparently wandering traders, trafficking in metals, for their gold spirals have been found in Danish graves of the corridor-tomb period. They were thus in all likelihood rivals of the Battle-Axe people in their search for amber.

It is not known how they went from Spain to central Europe. Sporadic finds in France and northern Italy suggest the Rhône-Rhine and the Brenner Pass routes as alternatives.61 In neither case is the evidence very satisfactory, and neither excludes the other. From the Rhine Valley as a center, Bell Beaker expeditions moved eastward into Bohemia, Austria, Poland, and Hungary; those who took part in these movements were eventually absorbed into the local populations. The Bell Beaker people who remained in the Rhinelands, however, came into intimate contact with the Corded people, who had invaded from the east and northeast, and with the corridor-tomb megalithic population to the north, whose domain extended down into the Netherlands. These three, of which the Bell Beaker element formed perhaps the dominant one, amalgamated to form an Early Bronze Age cultural unit, the so-called Zoned Beaker people, who invaded England and Scotland as the first important carriers of metal.

The Bell Beaker physical type is known to us from sixty or more skulls from scattered burials in Germany, Austria, Poland, Czecho-Slovakia, and Hungary.62 Of these, about one-third are truly brachycephalic, while the others are, almost without exception, mesocephals. In the Rhine country around Wörms, three-fourths or more of the Bell Beaker crania are brachycephalic; in Austria, one finds an equally high ratio; but in Bohemia and Poland the high brachycephaly becomes less frequent, and at Tököl in Hungary, in a series of ten crania, four are mesocephalic and six are dolichocephalic.63

So high is the mesocephalic ratio, and except for Hungary, so infrequent the truly long-headed crania associated with this type, that the mesocephals are clearly one branch of the main type, and not the product of local mixture with long heads. Morphologieally, the mesocephals are essentially Bell Beaker.

The series of skulls from the Rhineland, including nine adult males, is the most suitable for comparison (see Appendix I, col. 21). It is identical in the cranial index mean with that of Furst's forty-four male Bronze Age skulls from Cyprus, which have already been studied, and which have been called Dinaric. The Rhenish crania are a little larger in vault dimensions, and particularly in height; hut are almost identical facially. Morphologically, the two groups are also similar, but the Bell Beaker group is more extreme in many ways; the browridges are often heavy, the general ruggedness frequently greater. The faces are characteristically narrow, the orbits medium to high, the nasal skeleton high and aquiline; the occiput frequently flat. The stature for six males reached the high mean of 177 cm.

The deviation of the Rhenish Bell Beaker skulls, such as it is, from the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean Dinaric form, lies in a Borreby direction. It is, therefore, more than likely that the invaders mixed with the descendants of the earlier Neolithic brachycephals, whose territory stretched along the North Sea coast from southern Sweden to Belgium. On the whole, however, at the period represented by the Wörms crania, the eastern or Dinaric element was the more important.

The Spanish Bell Beaker problem now stands in a somewhat clearer light than before. The Dinaric type, with which the Rhenish Bell beakers are associated, is one which entered the western Mediterranean by sea from the east, and eventually moved, by some route yet to be determined in an accurate manner, to the north, and eventually to central Europe. The paucity of brachycephals in Spain may be due to the paucity of remains of this culture in general. It is still possible, one might add, that certain North African elements became involved in the Bell Beaker racial type, but such an accretion is unnecessary and hardly likely.

The Bell Beaker people were probably the first intrusive brachycephals to enter the Austrian Alps, and the mountains of northeastern Bohemia, for the push of Lake Dwelling Alpines southeastward toward the Balkans happened later in the Bronze Age. It is, therefore, possible that the present Dinaric populations of the Dinaric Alps and the Carpathians may be derived in part from this eastward irvasion. The small numbers and scattered burial habits of the Bell Beaker people on the more densely populated plains of Europe must have made them of much less ethnic importance there than in the mountains.

In their Rhineland center, the more numerous Bell Beaker people had constant relationships with the inhabitants of Denmark, who were still burying in corridor tombs. Furthermore, the Corded people, one branch of whom invaded Jutland and introduced the single-grave type of burial, also migrated to the Rhine Valley, and here amalgamated themselves with the Bell Beaker people, who were already in process of mixing with their Borreby type neighbors. The result of this triple fusion was a great expansion, and a population overflow down the Rhine, in the direction of Britain.



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alan trowel hands.
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« Reply #77 on: May 04, 2012, 10:47:59 AM »

Coon sort on indicates the movement of the 'beaker type' was underway in the west Med. in immediate pre-beaker times

The Copper and Bronze Age in the Western Mediterranean

 

In early Metal Ale times influences from Crete and the Aegean, including those from the second city of Troy, spread westward to Sicily, Sardinia, Italy, and Spain, reaching also the smaller islands of the western Mediterranean. This maritime diffusion was probably carried by seafarers in search of new sources of metal as well as markets for their products, and the traders and adventurers followed the old Megalithic routes. In the beginning the bringers of metal and the Late Megalithic colonists may well have been the same people.

The evidence of the racial composition of the Copper Age sailors who reached Italy and the Italian islands is simple and direct. The moderately tall, long-headed, mid narrow-nosed Megalithic people who were implanted, during the Late Neolithic, upon the smaller Mediterranean type which had preceded them, were followed, during the Aeneolithic by other, of the same kind, in the company of equally tall brachycephals. The latter resembled the people of the same Dinaric head form in Cyprus, Crete, and the Aegean, and without doubt formed a westward extension of the same movement.

In Sicily, which probably received metal earlier than most of the mainland or the islands farther west, Copper Age skulls of one series from Isnello28 are all of general Mediterranean type, with the Megalithic variety predominant, as shown by excessive skull lengths, moderate vault heights, and narrow noses. The mean stature for twenty-four males, presumably of this type, was 169 cm. Other Sicilian series, however, do include brachycephals, as at Chiusella and Villafratti, with cranial indices ranging as high as 91.29' These form, however, no more than one-third of the total Aeneolithic series from Sicily. In the true Bronze Age which followed, the incidence of these brachycephals increased.

In Sardinia a large series of sixty-three Copper Age skulls from Anghelu Ruju30 includes sixteen per cent, or ten individuals, of the new brachycephalic type, while the others resemble the long heads of Sicily. The group as a whole, irrespective of head form, was tall.31 The racial composition of Corsica during these periods is known only through the presence of one small, short-statured, long-headed female skeleton of either Neolithic or Aeneolithic age, and two brachycephalic crania from the Bronze Age.32

It would be interesting to supplement this survey of the Italian islands with a study of the crania found in the elaborate burial chambers of Malta, of late Neolithic or early Metal Age date, but the excavators of these vaults, professional and otherwise, literally threw away what was probably the longest unified series of human crania ever found, numbering over seven thousand. We are told that these early Maltese were "Mediterraneans," and know little else about them.33

On the mainland of Italy, Aeneolithic skeletons, which are found mostly on the western side of the central portion of the peninsula, belong to the same types found on the islands, but brachycephals are more abundant, being equal in number to the dolichoand mesocephals.34 Some of the Aeneolithic Italians of the Campagna and of Latium were very tall and large headed, with both mesocephalic and brachycephalic fortes.35 In Istria, at the head of the Adriatic, the Dinaric population which is dominant in that peninsula today had begun to arrive in the Copper and Bronze Ages,36 judging by a series of six female crania which bear definite indications of this type, such as flattening of the occiput, narrow face, and projecting nasal bones. The new invaders may, therefore, have travelled up the Adriatic as well as over the Tyrrhenian Sea.37

Reviewing the Italian material, on both metrical and morphological grounds we may determine that the round-headed racial type which came into the middle Mediterranean with the introduction of metal was of a general Dinaric character, and without doubt came from Asia Minor and the Aegean, where it first appeared in the last centuries of the third millennium B.C. Since the metal ages of the middle and Nvestern Mediterranean were later than those farther east, the chronological aspect of this theory presents no contradictions.

The Balearic Islands, Spain, and Portugal were, of course, the next stops in the westward spread of the metal-carrying seafarers through the Mediterranean. During the Early Copper Age in Spain, the distinctive Bell Beaker culture arose, which was soon to spread northward and eastward into central Europe, and eventually to Britain, as an important racial movement; and another culture of equal local importance, that of Los Millares in Almería, developed from eastern beginnings, with an emphasis on the importation of Egyptian and Near Eastern materials, such as hippopotamus ivory, ostrich egg shells, and actual Near Eastern pottery.38 The center of Early Bronze Age civilization again lay in AImeria, with el Argar as the principal site, and began about 2000 B.C. During this period, which lasted until the Iron Age, there was again much Egyptian and Aegean influence.

Unfortunately, in the Iberian Peninsula, as elsewhere, the human record is not sufficient to support the complexity of the cultural. The craniologist cannot keep pace Nvith the archaeologist; we cannot, without more numerous and more accurately correlated skeletons, tell in all cases what physical types went with each archaeological entity.

In the Balearic Islands, for a beginning, a few dolichocephalic crania, and one brachycephal, have been found in the talayots, or corbelled stone towers resembling the Sardinian nuraghes and Scottish brochs, which were first built in the Copper Age but which were used until the advent of iron.39 Fifty-eight adult and five juvenile crania with long bones from a naveta, or long barrow, in Menorca, are said to have represented a homogeneous group of people with short stature, long-heads (all cranial indices being under 75), low faces, prominent, aquiline noses, and projecting chins. The form of the scapulae and humeri of the males showed that they had developed great shoulder and arm muscles from slinging, the activity from which the islands derived their name. Three other skulls from an ossuary at Biniatap are brachycephalic.40

In the Copper Age groups from mainland Spain and Portugal, the old long-headed types overwhelmingly prevail: out of one hundred and thirtyfour crania, which represent all that could be assembled for this survey, only fifteen, or nine per cent, were brachycephalic.41 If one includes Ariège, Basses Pyrenees, and Aveyron in the south of France, twenty-eight crania may be added, of which only two are brachycephalic.42 One of these, from a site near the city of Narbonne, possesses all of the cranial and facial features typical of the Bronze Age brachycephals of Cyprus, Italy, and the Italian islands. In few of the Spanish instances are extensive details given, but it is probable that the brachycephalic crania there are also of the same type.

Many of the dolichocephalic Copper Age skulls are of Megalithic or Long Barrow type, while others are of a smaller, less rugged, Mesolithic or Neolithic Mediterranean variety. Among the mesocephalic crania, some may again be small Mediterraneans, while others, with larger vault dimensions, may in many instances be mixtures between Megalithic and brachycephalic types. The statures of the large dolichoceplialic group average about 167 or 168 cm.; taller than most living Spaniards and as tall as the Neolithic Long Barrow population in Britain. Other dolichocephalic crania go with short stature, with a mean of about 160 cm. Unfortunately, it is not possible to determine the approximate proportions of Megalithic and Mediterranean types, but the former seem to be at least one-half of the total.

A special development of the Copper Age in Spain was the Bell Beaker culture, about which more will be said later, since its chief influence in the racial sense fell upon areas in other parts of Europe. It is at present the general belief of archaeologists that the Bell Beaker culture arose in central Spain, shortly before 2000 B.C., from local beginnings.43 A North African origin is rendered unlikely by the supposed absence of a Bronze Age south of Gibraltar, although recent work in Morocco has revealed some supposedly early metal.44 Where Bell Beaker burials are found in central Europe, the skeletons are almost always of the same tall brachycephalic type which we have already studied in the eastern Mediterranean and Italy. In Spain, however, they are frequently of the Megalithic race. The basis for the belief that the Bell Beaker people of Spain were Dinarics rests largely upon three cranial fragments from the type site of this culture at Ciempozuelos, near Madrid, and upon one complete mesocephalic skull from Cerro de Tomillo some forty miles away.45

The measurements of the three fragments are uncertain, and their allocation to a definite type impossible.46 However, all three fragments appear to be brachycephalic, and one to have a high vault. One has strong, another weak, browridges. One seems to have a slight lambdoid flattening. In the only fragment which possesses facial bones, the orbits are high and the nose narrow. The Cerro de Tomillo skull is not, however, a pure dolichocephal, and does resemble, in a partial sense, the Dinaric brachycephalic variety which was common in the Mediterranean at that time.

Although there seems to be little doubt in the minds of the archaeologists that the Bell Beaker culture developed in Spain, and although eastern Mediterranean brachycephals came there at about the same time, the manner in which the physical type and the culture became identified with each other is still obscure.

During the Early Bronze Age, after the efflorescence of the Bell Beaker people, Spain became a great center of metallurgy and trading activity, rivalling the Aegean in importance. The colonists from the east, who had originally located themselves in Spain merely as miners and forwarding agents of metal, now settled down to producing the finished products of the Bronze Age in Spain itself, for local sale, since disorders in the Mycenaean and Minoan realms had apparently cut them off from their homelands.47 Furthermore, the introduction of fresh cultural elements from the east suggests that new people had joined them.

The principal site of the Early Bronze Age, el Argar in the province of Almeria, is located near the silver mines of Herrerias, which were worked in ancient times. From some thirteen hundred flexed urn burials, seventy skulls have been recovered, of which twenty-nine are those of adult males, and forty of adult females.48 The el Argar series shows quite definitely that the Early Bronze Age people of Almeria were not descendants of previous inhabitants, but to a large extent a new population, with definite Near Eastern relationships, as one might suppose from the cultural indications.

The series as a whole is one of small people, with a mean male stature of 158 to 160 cm.; the earlier Copper Age immigrants, for the most part, were ten centimeters taller. The skulls gravitate around the indices of 76 and 77; for sixty per cent of male and fifty-eight per cent of female crania are mesocephalic. Of the remaining skulls, long heads outnumber round heads two to one. The series is not very homogeneous, and the cranial index and most other criteria of form show modalities which make it certain that the el Argar people included at least two types which had not become completely amalgamated.

The principal cranial element is a normal, rather small variety of Mediterranean, which seems to resemble, both metrically and in description, predynastic or early dynastic Egyptian forms, or at the same time, elements which entered Spain in the Neolithic. Prominence of the browridges at glabella, and a considerable nasion depression, make this type of Mediterranean rather unlike the Cappadocian variety common in Asia Minor, although metrically there is nothing to prevent such a relationship.

The second type is the new brachycephalic element, which seems to have been the dominant one politically, in that two female skulls found wearing silver crowns both belonged to it. It was apparently some form of Near Eastern brachycephal with which we are already in a General way familiar - the skull is short, rather than broad; the vault is medium or low; the forehead is narrow, the lambdoid region often flattened, while the greatest breadth of the vault comes well to the rear. The nose is high and narrow, and the nasal bones join the frontal with little depression, while a smooth glabella heightens the impression of a high-bridged Near Eastern type of nose. Although the units are high and rounded, the face is rather low, but the mandible is surprisingly broad, often with everted gonial angles. There is also a perceptible amount of alveolar prognathism.

Although this is not exactly the brachycephalic type which we met in the Copper Age, and which became identified with the Bell Beaker people, it is, nevertheless, definitely a Near Eastern variety of brachycephal which is familiar in Asia Minor and Syria today. The el Argar people represent a mixture of elements which could be duplicated in the modern Near East, but not one with which, in our ignorance of most of that end of the Mediterranean, we are already familiar. Some of the Mediterranean racial contingent may well have been of earlier Spanish derivation, but if so the absence of Megalithic and Copper Age forms is surprising.

In other parts of Spain no such change of population as that of Almeria is manifest. Mediterraneans, both large and small, are carried over from the Neolithic and Copper Ages, while the larger variety of brachycephal also continues." Out in Mallorca and Menorca, the dolichocephalic element seems to remain as the exclusive or predominant one, for the most part tall and of Long Barrow vault form.50

The westward migrations of peoples from the Aegean and the eastern end of the Mediterranean, during the Late Neolithic, the Aeneolithic, and the Early Bronze Age, must have affected the populations of Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, the Balearics, and the Iberian Peninsula to a considerable degree. These were real colonizations which added new racial elements to the Mesolithic and Early Neolithic Mediterranean sub-stratum. By the middle of the Bronze Age, the central and western N-fediterranean lands had assumed the racial characteristics which they still, for the most part, bear. Except for northern and central Italy, later migrations were to bring little that was new.





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JeanL
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« Reply #78 on: May 04, 2012, 10:51:12 AM »

You're only delaying the inevitable.

What exactly is the inevitable?

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MHammers
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« Reply #79 on: May 04, 2012, 11:19:55 AM »

Coon sort on indicates the movement of the 'beaker type' was underway in the west Med. in immediate pre-beaker times

The Copper and Bronze Age in the Western Mediterranean

 

In early Metal Ale times influences from Crete and the Aegean, including those from the second city of Troy, spread westward to Sicily, Sardinia, Italy, and Spain, reaching also the smaller islands of the western Mediterranean. This maritime diffusion was probably carried by seafarers in search of new sources of metal as well as markets for their products, and the traders and adventurers followed the old Megalithic routes. In the beginning the bringers of metal and the Late Megalithic colonists may well have been the same people.

The evidence of the racial composition of the Copper Age sailors who reached Italy and the Italian islands is simple and direct. The moderately tall, long-headed, mid narrow-nosed Megalithic people who were implanted, during the Late Neolithic, upon the smaller Mediterranean type which had preceded them, were followed, during the Aeneolithic by other, of the same kind, in the company of equally tall brachycephals. The latter resembled the people of the same Dinaric head form in Cyprus, Crete, and the Aegean, and without doubt formed a westward extension of the same movement.

In Sicily, which probably received metal earlier than most of the mainland or the islands farther west, Copper Age skulls of one series from Isnello28 are all of general Mediterranean type, with the Megalithic variety predominant, as shown by excessive skull lengths, moderate vault heights, and narrow noses. The mean stature for twenty-four males, presumably of this type, was 169 cm. Other Sicilian series, however, do include brachycephals, as at Chiusella and Villafratti, with cranial indices ranging as high as 91.29' These form, however, no more than one-third of the total Aeneolithic series from Sicily. In the true Bronze Age which followed, the incidence of these brachycephals increased.

In Sardinia a large series of sixty-three Copper Age skulls from Anghelu Ruju30 includes sixteen per cent, or ten individuals, of the new brachycephalic type, while the others resemble the long heads of Sicily. The group as a whole, irrespective of head form, was tall.31 The racial composition of Corsica during these periods is known only through the presence of one small, short-statured, long-headed female skeleton of either Neolithic or Aeneolithic age, and two brachycephalic crania from the Bronze Age.32

It would be interesting to supplement this survey of the Italian islands with a study of the crania found in the elaborate burial chambers of Malta, of late Neolithic or early Metal Age date, but the excavators of these vaults, professional and otherwise, literally threw away what was probably the longest unified series of human crania ever found, numbering over seven thousand. We are told that these early Maltese were "Mediterraneans," and know little else about them.33

On the mainland of Italy, Aeneolithic skeletons, which are found mostly on the western side of the central portion of the peninsula, belong to the same types found on the islands, but brachycephals are more abundant, being equal in number to the dolichoand mesocephals.34 Some of the Aeneolithic Italians of the Campagna and of Latium were very tall and large headed, with both mesocephalic and brachycephalic fortes.35 In Istria, at the head of the Adriatic, the Dinaric population which is dominant in that peninsula today had begun to arrive in the Copper and Bronze Ages,36 judging by a series of six female crania which bear definite indications of this type, such as flattening of the occiput, narrow face, and projecting nasal bones. The new invaders may, therefore, have travelled up the Adriatic as well as over the Tyrrhenian Sea.37

Reviewing the Italian material, on both metrical and morphological grounds we may determine that the round-headed racial type which came into the middle Mediterranean with the introduction of metal was of a general Dinaric character, and without doubt came from Asia Minor and the Aegean, where it first appeared in the last centuries of the third millennium B.C. Since the metal ages of the middle and Nvestern Mediterranean were later than those farther east, the chronological aspect of this theory presents no contradictions.

The Balearic Islands, Spain, and Portugal were, of course, the next stops in the westward spread of the metal-carrying seafarers through the Mediterranean. During the Early Copper Age in Spain, the distinctive Bell Beaker culture arose, which was soon to spread northward and eastward into central Europe, and eventually to Britain, as an important racial movement; and another culture of equal local importance, that of Los Millares in Almería, developed from eastern beginnings, with an emphasis on the importation of Egyptian and Near Eastern materials, such as hippopotamus ivory, ostrich egg shells, and actual Near Eastern pottery.38 The center of Early Bronze Age civilization again lay in AImeria, with el Argar as the principal site, and began about 2000 B.C. During this period, which lasted until the Iron Age, there was again much Egyptian and Aegean influence.

Unfortunately, in the Iberian Peninsula, as elsewhere, the human record is not sufficient to support the complexity of the cultural. The craniologist cannot keep pace Nvith the archaeologist; we cannot, without more numerous and more accurately correlated skeletons, tell in all cases what physical types went with each archaeological entity.

In the Balearic Islands, for a beginning, a few dolichocephalic crania, and one brachycephal, have been found in the talayots, or corbelled stone towers resembling the Sardinian nuraghes and Scottish brochs, which were first built in the Copper Age but which were used until the advent of iron.39 Fifty-eight adult and five juvenile crania with long bones from a naveta, or long barrow, in Menorca, are said to have represented a homogeneous group of people with short stature, long-heads (all cranial indices being under 75), low faces, prominent, aquiline noses, and projecting chins. The form of the scapulae and humeri of the males showed that they had developed great shoulder and arm muscles from slinging, the activity from which the islands derived their name. Three other skulls from an ossuary at Biniatap are brachycephalic.40

In the Copper Age groups from mainland Spain and Portugal, the old long-headed types overwhelmingly prevail: out of one hundred and thirtyfour crania, which represent all that could be assembled for this survey, only fifteen, or nine per cent, were brachycephalic.41 If one includes Ariège, Basses Pyrenees, and Aveyron in the south of France, twenty-eight crania may be added, of which only two are brachycephalic.42 One of these, from a site near the city of Narbonne, possesses all of the cranial and facial features typical of the Bronze Age brachycephals of Cyprus, Italy, and the Italian islands. In few of the Spanish instances are extensive details given, but it is probable that the brachycephalic crania there are also of the same type.

Many of the dolichocephalic Copper Age skulls are of Megalithic or Long Barrow type, while others are of a smaller, less rugged, Mesolithic or Neolithic Mediterranean variety. Among the mesocephalic crania, some may again be small Mediterraneans, while others, with larger vault dimensions, may in many instances be mixtures between Megalithic and brachycephalic types. The statures of the large dolichoceplialic group average about 167 or 168 cm.; taller than most living Spaniards and as tall as the Neolithic Long Barrow population in Britain. Other dolichocephalic crania go with short stature, with a mean of about 160 cm. Unfortunately, it is not possible to determine the approximate proportions of Megalithic and Mediterranean types, but the former seem to be at least one-half of the total.

A special development of the Copper Age in Spain was the Bell Beaker culture, about which more will be said later, since its chief influence in the racial sense fell upon areas in other parts of Europe. It is at present the general belief of archaeologists that the Bell Beaker culture arose in central Spain, shortly before 2000 B.C., from local beginnings.43 A North African origin is rendered unlikely by the supposed absence of a Bronze Age south of Gibraltar, although recent work in Morocco has revealed some supposedly early metal.44 Where Bell Beaker burials are found in central Europe, the skeletons are almost always of the same tall brachycephalic type which we have already studied in the eastern Mediterranean and Italy. In Spain, however, they are frequently of the Megalithic race. The basis for the belief that the Bell Beaker people of Spain were Dinarics rests largely upon three cranial fragments from the type site of this culture at Ciempozuelos, near Madrid, and upon one complete mesocephalic skull from Cerro de Tomillo some forty miles away.45

The measurements of the three fragments are uncertain, and their allocation to a definite type impossible.46 However, all three fragments appear to be brachycephalic, and one to have a high vault. One has strong, another weak, browridges. One seems to have a slight lambdoid flattening. In the only fragment which possesses facial bones, the orbits are high and the nose narrow. The Cerro de Tomillo skull is not, however, a pure dolichocephal, and does resemble, in a partial sense, the Dinaric brachycephalic variety which was common in the Mediterranean at that time.

Although there seems to be little doubt in the minds of the archaeologists that the Bell Beaker culture developed in Spain, and although eastern Mediterranean brachycephals came there at about the same time, the manner in which the physical type and the culture became identified with each other is still obscure.

During the Early Bronze Age, after the efflorescence of the Bell Beaker people, Spain became a great center of metallurgy and trading activity, rivalling the Aegean in importance. The colonists from the east, who had originally located themselves in Spain merely as miners and forwarding agents of metal, now settled down to producing the finished products of the Bronze Age in Spain itself, for local sale, since disorders in the Mycenaean and Minoan realms had apparently cut them off from their homelands.47 Furthermore, the introduction of fresh cultural elements from the east suggests that new people had joined them.

The principal site of the Early Bronze Age, el Argar in the province of Almeria, is located near the silver mines of Herrerias, which were worked in ancient times. From some thirteen hundred flexed urn burials, seventy skulls have been recovered, of which twenty-nine are those of adult males, and forty of adult females.48 The el Argar series shows quite definitely that the Early Bronze Age people of Almeria were not descendants of previous inhabitants, but to a large extent a new population, with definite Near Eastern relationships, as one might suppose from the cultural indications.

The series as a whole is one of small people, with a mean male stature of 158 to 160 cm.; the earlier Copper Age immigrants, for the most part, were ten centimeters taller. The skulls gravitate around the indices of 76 and 77; for sixty per cent of male and fifty-eight per cent of female crania are mesocephalic. Of the remaining skulls, long heads outnumber round heads two to one. The series is not very homogeneous, and the cranial index and most other criteria of form show modalities which make it certain that the el Argar people included at least two types which had not become completely amalgamated.

The principal cranial element is a normal, rather small variety of Mediterranean, which seems to resemble, both metrically and in description, predynastic or early dynastic Egyptian forms, or at the same time, elements which entered Spain in the Neolithic. Prominence of the browridges at glabella, and a considerable nasion depression, make this type of Mediterranean rather unlike the Cappadocian variety common in Asia Minor, although metrically there is nothing to prevent such a relationship.

The second type is the new brachycephalic element, which seems to have been the dominant one politically, in that two female skulls found wearing silver crowns both belonged to it. It was apparently some form of Near Eastern brachycephal with which we are already in a General way familiar - the skull is short, rather than broad; the vault is medium or low; the forehead is narrow, the lambdoid region often flattened, while the greatest breadth of the vault comes well to the rear. The nose is high and narrow, and the nasal bones join the frontal with little depression, while a smooth glabella heightens the impression of a high-bridged Near Eastern type of nose. Although the units are high and rounded, the face is rather low, but the mandible is surprisingly broad, often with everted gonial angles. There is also a perceptible amount of alveolar prognathism.

Although this is not exactly the brachycephalic type which we met in the Copper Age, and which became identified with the Bell Beaker people, it is, nevertheless, definitely a Near Eastern variety of brachycephal which is familiar in Asia Minor and Syria today. The el Argar people represent a mixture of elements which could be duplicated in the modern Near East, but not one with which, in our ignorance of most of that end of the Mediterranean, we are already familiar. Some of the Mediterranean racial contingent may well have been of earlier Spanish derivation, but if so the absence of Megalithic and Copper Age forms is surprising.

In other parts of Spain no such change of population as that of Almeria is manifest. Mediterraneans, both large and small, are carried over from the Neolithic and Copper Ages, while the larger variety of brachycephal also continues." Out in Mallorca and Menorca, the dolichocephalic element seems to remain as the exclusive or predominant one, for the most part tall and of Long Barrow vault form.50

The westward migrations of peoples from the Aegean and the eastern end of the Mediterranean, during the Late Neolithic, the Aeneolithic, and the Early Bronze Age, must have affected the populations of Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, the Balearics, and the Iberian Peninsula to a considerable degree. These were real colonizations which added new racial elements to the Mesolithic and Early Neolithic Mediterranean sub-stratum. By the middle of the Bronze Age, the central and western N-fediterranean lands had assumed the racial characteristics which they still, for the most part, bear. Except for northern and central Italy, later migrations were to bring little that was new.

The brachycephalic element also became more common in SE Europe in the 4th millenium BC for whatever reasons.  One thing about the central European and German Beakers is they are described as having a narrow face which was characteristic of previous neolithic farmers.  This is one reason why R1b probably didn't come from the steppe.  The Yamnaya were noted for having broad faces, although this type didn't seem to make to the Hungarian plain in large number.  My guess is that many of the Yamnaya who migrated up the Danube were physically more like the farming populations they had absorbed.  However, the Beakers were certainly influenced by the steppe via SE Europe.  British Beakers did have the robust element, but that can be explained by admixture with remnant pre-neolithic peoples in the west.
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« Reply #80 on: May 04, 2012, 11:31:26 AM »

In response to queries here and by email:

The Middle Elbe-Saarle region has a number of Bell Beaker sites. The earliest dated in the survey by Muller and van Willigen 2001 was that at Bleckendorf (2850-2500 cal BC). That has a Corded Ware pot, but hammer-headed pin and copper objects (a hilt tang dagger and a metal awl) which have been related to Bell Beakers. "This relation was confirmed by the orientation of the skeleton (N-S)". Drawings of BB pottery from this region with dates can be found in their paper.

The  burial ground at Kromsdorf was identified as Bell Beaker by "the north–south orientation of interred individuals and a characteristic Glockenbecher [Bell Beaker] vessel". I can find no published archaeological paper on this site, nor is one cited by Lee et al, so the 1994 excavation was probably written up in a report which is gathering dust somewhere.
« Last Edit: May 04, 2012, 11:33:46 AM by Jean M » Logged
alan trowel hands.
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« Reply #81 on: May 04, 2012, 11:41:47 AM »

In response to queries here and by email:

The Middle Elbe-Saarle region has a number of Bell Beaker sites. The earliest dated in the survey by Muller and van Willigen 2001 was that at Bleckendorf (2850-2500 cal BC). That has a Corded Ware pot, but hammer-headed pin and copper objects (a hilt tang dagger and a metal awl) which have been related to Bell Beakers. "This relation was confirmed by the orientation of the skeleton (N-S)". Drawings of BB pottery from this region with dates can be found in their paper.

The  burial ground at Kromsdorf was identified as Bell Beaker by "the north–south orientation of interred individuals and a characteristic Glockenbecher [Bell Beaker] vessel". I can find no published archaeological paper on this site, nor is one cited by Lee et al, so the 1994 excavation was probably written up in a report which is gathering dust somewhere.

and folks note the wide date range due to a problem in the radiocarbon calibration curve n this period.  This has been raised again recently to question if we really can disntinguish between dates of 2850BC and 2500BC and hence perhaps the earliest beaker geography remains uncertain. 
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« Reply #82 on: May 04, 2012, 12:55:18 PM »

The challenge with Coon's work is that these people were constantly mixing with one another, so it is impossible to determine at any given point of time - that particular skeleton's ancestral history.

It looks to me like a mediterranean population expanded north-east as the population grew with new farming and metal technology, and mixed with north-east/east Europeans.

We definitely don't have flat occipitals though :)
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« Reply #83 on: May 04, 2012, 01:17:22 PM »

and folks note the wide date range due to a problem in the radiocarbon calibration curve n this period.  This has been raised again recently to question if we really can disntinguish between dates of 2850BC and 2500BC and hence perhaps the earliest beaker geography remains uncertain. 

This has been mentioned, but fleetingly and on another thread.  If 2850 near the mouth of the Elbe is about as accurate (or inaccurate) as 2900 near the Tagus, or elsewhere in Portugal, the whole west-to-east framework initiated by the early carbon dating there might be something of a house of cards.  Or at best an oversimplification.

Among the rambling commentaries on Dienekes' blog today, one princenuadha has noted that "The mutations on r1b in Europe don't follow a Mediterranean path from the middle east."  That's only a concern if you believe that maritime commerce in that era was limited to warm water.  I still like the Baltic -- North Sea -- Bay of Biscay notion.  It may not fit the bulk of the archaeology as well, but it fits the Y-DNA better.  And it's at least feasible that some helpful archaeological sites have been underwater for a few thousand years.

I have no opinion (yet) on which kind of -cephalic tends to accompany which Y haplogroups -- always assuming that any such correlation exists.
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« Reply #84 on: May 04, 2012, 01:35:05 PM »

and folks note the wide date range due to a problem in the radiocarbon calibration curve n this period.  This has been raised again recently to question if we really can disntinguish between dates of 2850BC and 2500BC and hence perhaps the earliest beaker geography remains uncertain.  

This has been mentioned, but fleetingly and on another thread.  If 2850 near the mouth of the Elbe is about as accurate (or inaccurate) as 2900 near the Tagus, or elsewhere in Portugal, the whole west-to-east framework initiated by the early carbon dating there might be something of a house of cards.  Or at best an oversimplification.

Among the rambling commentaries on Dienekes' blog today, one princenuadha has noted that "The mutations on r1b in Europe don't follow a Mediterranean path from the middle east."  That's only a concern if you believe that maritime commerce in that era was limited to warm water.  I still like the Baltic -- North Sea -- Bay of Biscay notion. It may not fit the bulk of the archaeology as well,  but it fits the Y-DNA better.  And it's at least feasible that some helpful archaeological sites have been underwater for a few thousand years.

I have no opinion (yet) on which kind of -cephalic tends to accompany which Y haplogroups -- always assuming that any such correlation exists.

Really, how so?
« Last Edit: May 04, 2012, 01:35:51 PM by Richard Rocca » Logged

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« Reply #85 on: May 04, 2012, 02:07:23 PM »

The idea we have nailed the earliest dates for beaker should be treated with caution.  A recent paper has pointed out that the radiocarbon calibration curve has a problem right at the time of the beginning of beaker and the issue of origin point of beaker is still open and could be anywhere in Europe. 
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« Reply #86 on: May 04, 2012, 02:52:46 PM »

It may not fit the bulk of the archaeology as well,  but it fits the Y-DNA better.

Really, how so?

Umm, it's kind of a digression, but -- by allowing eastern things to move westward, northern things to move southward, and all of the above movements to terminate only when they get to an ocean too big to cross in open boats within a day or two.

As opposed to making a big Mediterranean leapfrog from SW Asia to Portugal (via Italy, if Gioiello is watching), to fit the radiocarbon date of a couple of early sites (and the asterisks of a couple of families) -- and then slowly filtering back to Poland, Ukraine, Finland, etc. over the next thousand years or so, while largely failing to leave a genetic trail along the southern route.

Not that I have any objection whatever to the warm water, and all.  I'm just looking at the same maps and pictures you are (Maciamo Hay's, Cunliffe's, Anthony's, Jean Manco's, etc.) and seeing slightly different things.
« Last Edit: May 04, 2012, 03:20:41 PM by razyn » Logged

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« Reply #87 on: May 04, 2012, 03:00:48 PM »

It may not fit the bulk of the archaeology as well,  but it fits the Y-DNA better.

Really, how so?

Umm, it's kind of a digression, but -- by allowing eastern things to move westward, northern things to move southward, and all of the above movements to terminate only when they get to an ocean too big to cross in open boats within a day or two.

As opposed to make a big Mediterranean leapfrog from SW Asia to Portugal (via Italy, if Gioiello is watching), to fit the radiocarbon date of a couple of early sites (and the asterisks of a couple of families) -- and then slowly filtering back to Poland, Ukraine, Finland, etc. over the next thousand years or so, while largely failing to leave a genetic trail along the southern route.

Not that I have any objection whatever to the warm water, and all.  I'm just looking at the same maps and pictures you are (Maciamo Hay's, Cunliffe's, Anthony's, Jean Manco's, etc.) and seeing slightly different things.

I'm seeing the same east to west everyone else is and I am very skeptical of Beakers from Iberia. The thing I'm seeing though is L23 from the SE (Balkans? Anatolia? S. Italy?) and then making its way into France, which is not the same as saying it made its way from SE Asia to Portugal and then exploded from there.
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« Reply #88 on: May 04, 2012, 03:19:10 PM »


I'm seeing the same east to west everyone else is and I am very skeptical of Beakers from Iberia. The thing I'm seeing though is L23 from the SE (Balkans? Anatolia? S. Italy?) and then making its way into France, which is not the same as saying it made its way from SE Asia to Portugal and then exploded from there.

I'll let you be an L23 Ligurian and wear that cool helmet (that used to be your avatar), if you let me suppose that some of us Polish DF27s came around the Breton peninsula, up the Loire, and if economically necessary down the Rhone, in something like the keelboat that was my avatar.  (Still is, on the MolGen forum.)
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« Reply #89 on: May 04, 2012, 03:23:41 PM »


I'm seeing the same east to west everyone else is and I am very skeptical of Beakers from Iberia. The thing I'm seeing though is L23 from the SE (Balkans? Anatolia? S. Italy?) and then making its way into France, which is not the same as saying it made its way from SE Asia to Portugal and then exploded from there.

I'll let you be an L23 Ligurian and wear that cool helmet (that used to be your avatar), if you let me suppose that some of us Polish DF27s came around the Breton peninsula, up the Loire, and if economically necessary down the Rhone, in something like the keelboat that was my avatar.  (Still is, on the MolGen forum.)

Deal. I'll be fly fishing the Shenandoah in a few months, so if I see the keelboat, I'll know it's you!
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« Reply #90 on: May 04, 2012, 03:31:15 PM »

Deal. I'll be fly fishing the Shenandoah in a few months, so if I see the keelboat, I'll know it's you!

Actually it's probably a guy named Dan Guzy, I'm too old to enjoy spending the day wet, anymore.  If I ever did.  But apparently, my ancestors just loved it.
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« Reply #91 on: May 04, 2012, 04:04:09 PM »

[quote author=Richard Rocca link=topic=10580.msg130532#msg130532 .
I'm seeing the same east to west everyone else is and I am very skeptical of Beakers from Iberia. The thing I'm seeing though is L23 from the SE (Balkans? Anatolia? S. Italy?) and then making its way into France, which is not the same as saying it made its way from SE Asia to Portugal and then exploded from there.
[/quote]
The colonization of “Italian” agriculturalists 7500 ya from “Grotta delle Arene Candide” or other places in Italy is certainly demonstrated by many papers. The places are the same  where you have detected R-L51+ in Iberia. There is also a paper about the “Tudorella sulcata” and its origin in Sardinia I spoke about in the past in some thread here.
The problem, you know, is if it is too soon for R-L51 or some subclades and for the Ligurian language or something similar. I have some doubt too, even though I have less difficult for the Y than for the language. But it is an hypothesis that should be demonstrated. But also for an European R1b1a2* in Europe 4600 YBP many had many doubts till yesterday. My hypotheses of course are based on many knowledge, for instance I have said from many years that probably the most ancient witness of a similar Celtic language could be the “Stele di Novilara” and many linguists have always said that if there was a country in Europe with the presence of many and differentiated languages was Italy.
Of course we are waiting for other aDNA tests, and we know that Prof Caramelli of Florence and many French Geneticists are working on this, and if French scholars has come to Italy for some bones probably it is because they have an idea of what they are searching for.
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« Reply #92 on: May 04, 2012, 07:54:01 PM »

You're only delaying the inevitable.
What exactly is the inevitable?

I don't know either, but apparently it's Polish:

http://eurogenes.blogspot.com.au/2012/05/first-r1b-from-neolithic-europeand-it.html

I find myself in the embarrassing position of agreeing with part of the position of someone who is even less temperate than Maliciavelli.  But I certainly don't share his point of view; only one or two conclusions.  I do think we may need to examine the Vistula, and other north-flowing eastern waterways, for the full R1b1a2 story.  But that's about it; and the people involved were not Slavs or Poles or any of that modern stuff.  More like proto-Italo-Celts -- not that they knew that, at the time.

And I actually expect Jean M will have the last laugh about this, even burdened as she is with all those cows.
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« Reply #93 on: May 04, 2012, 08:27:17 PM »

You're only delaying the inevitable.
What exactly is the inevitable?

I don't know either, but apparently it's Polish:

http://eurogenes.blogspot.com.au/2012/05/first-r1b-from-neolithic-europeand-it.html

I find myself in the embarrassing position of agreeing with part of the position of someone who is even less temperate than Maliciavelli.  But I certainly don't share his point of view; only one or two conclusions.  I do think we may need to examine the Vistula, and other north-flowing eastern waterways, for the full R1b1a2 story.  But that's about it; and the people involved were not Slavs or Poles or any of that modern stuff.  More like proto-Italo-Celts -- not that they knew that, at the time.

And I actually expect Jean M will have the last laugh about this, even burdened as she is with all those cows.

You can't blame the guy for Haplogroup Envy.
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« Reply #94 on: May 04, 2012, 09:14:20 PM »

Here is an interesting video on firing Beaker pots by a man in England who makes replicas of them.
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« Reply #95 on: May 04, 2012, 09:40:21 PM »

Here is an interesting video on firing Beaker pots by a man in England who makes replicas of them.

When they are upside-down cooling, I can make out that definitive bell shape. I wonder if this fellow sells these things.
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« Reply #96 on: May 04, 2012, 10:54:24 PM »

It is, perhaps, the Chardonnay speaking (I live on the far left coast of the USA after all), but may I say how pleased and proud I am to be even tangentially connected to such a smart and passionate group as all of you?

The day may come when horribly degraded aDNA can be reconstituted from many more archaeological sites. At the very least, we may now expect far more detailed and routine testing of ancient remains. It may sometimes seem we’ve been at this a long time, but this really is just the first crack of dawn in new era of understanding our ancestral origins. It’s tremendously fun and exciting.

Zum Wohl!

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« Reply #97 on: May 05, 2012, 01:46:45 AM »

it wouldn't hurt to ask.
If the answer is no..perhaps they would consider it when testing future samples?

I am working that angle with a few of the authors. Usually the answer is 'no', but let's see.

This may seem like a naive question, but once an aDNA sample is extracted and identified as R1b+ and U106-, can it then be incubated, alplified and multiplied so that it is suitable for commercial testing. Dr. Jim Wilson has assembled an assey of 200Y and 200 mtDNA SNPs representative of a European population for a moderate price.
If it is a question of the ~$300 testing fee, I will raid the piggybank to fund it.
Im sure Dr Wilson would cooperate with a non standard sample in the interests of Science, even if it produces a lot of no calls.


"We use Illumina technology to read (genotype) the DNA - with a custom-designed chip. This contains nearly 200 mtDNA markers and over 200 Y chromosome markers, all chosen to be non-redundant and informative in Europeans (although there is representation of non-European variation on the chip as well). Lab work is carried out at the Queen Mary University of London Genome Centre. Our tests do not use short tandem repeats or STRs."
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R1b1a2a1a1b4  L459+ L21+ DF21+ DF13+ U198- U106- P66- P314.2- M37- M222- L96- L513- L48- L44- L4- L226- L2- L196- L195- L193- L192.1- L176.2- L165- L159.2- L148- L144- L130- L1-
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« Reply #98 on: May 05, 2012, 02:17:25 AM »

Here is an interesting video on firing Beaker pots by a man in England who makes replicas of them.

I wonder if he could replicate the mead too.

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« Reply #99 on: May 05, 2012, 02:55:05 AM »

Here is an interesting video on firing Beaker pots by a man in England who makes replicas of them.
I'm not sure this is the right way because his beakers are charred in some places
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