Since I posted "No Matches" about a month ago, I have been thinking about this issue. Here is my updated suggestion list for someone with no "No yDNA Matches":
1. See if you can locate a distant known cousin - say 3rd or 4th - the further back the better. If you get a match, you know you are seeking a match with the "right" yDNA profile. If the two don't match - your short term quest is "why"
2. See if you can locate and test a known descendant of a family with the same surname living near your family in past times - particularly one(s) you suspect to be your kin.
3. Compare your marker profile against standards for the haplogroup to see if you have any unusual marker values. Click here for our references If you find unusual value(s), do a search at y-search for men who match if you leave out those markers. (It could be that you are having one or two markers kick out all of the matches). As examples - I have a man with a distance of 8 from his otherwise matches at 557 which disrupts his 67 marker comparisons. Another man recently found a 3 step distance at 385a that was keeping him from finding a match within his own surname. Since 385a is in the first panel - it has more impact on matches
And - if you are in a situation with an obvious recLOH (recombination event that pairs up multi-markers) you'll want to exclude all of those as you search for possible matches. (in general, all of multi-marker matched pairings will be considered as a single mutation if you can find a man who otherwise is a close match.) As example, pairings at 385, 464 and CDY could be causing you to count differences of 3 to 10 - which will be counted as 1 mutation when you include recLOH logic
4. Obviously - do the basics -which include posting your results at the public databases, upgrading the test to 67 markers - and if there had been matches with men tested only at 12 markers - encouraging them to upgrade so you can do a useful comparison.
5.Join your Haplogroup project and see if you can learn something about your ancient ancestry while you are waiting for results from the steps above. Consider doing a Deep Clade test to refine the precision of your haplogroup to the extent possible - which will allow you to work with a relatively small group who share your ancient heritage - even though it may still be in the 1000s of years.
If you have done all of these and still have no match - it's time to research another ancestral surname - while you wait for your match to show up. (and that should happen as more and more people are testing every year)
ps - If you have other suggestions for folks with no matches that I failed to include - please add them as a comment of let me know and I'll add them.